SIL classification:

Indo-European > Indo-Iranian > Indo-Aryan > Northwestern zone > Lahnda > Punjabi

ISO 639-3 code:


WALS classification:

Family: Indo-European > Genus: Indic

WALS coordinates:

31° N, 74° E


Anju Saxena

Data entry personnel:

Mohini Pimpalkhare


Creative Commons license
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Chapter 1 - The physical world
S01.100 the world jahāna, duniyā The Amazon is the longest river in the world.
S01.210 the land jamīna, dharatī, bhūmī The captain sighted land in the distance.
S01.212 the soil miṭī The soil is pretty good in this area.
S01.213 the dust miṭī, khāka The house had not been cleaned and there was dust on the furniture.
S01.214 the mud miṭī, chikaṛa, kicaṛa His shoes were covered with mud.
S01.215 the sand rēta, bālū There is sand on this part of the beach.
S01.220 the mountain or hill parabata, pahāṛa, pahāṛī --
S01.222 the cliff or precipice caṭāna --
S01.230 the plain maidāna --
S01.240 the valley vādī, ghāṭī The valley was surrounded by high mountains.
S01.250 the island dīpa, ṭāpū Sicily is a Mediterranean island.
S01.260 the mainland -- --
S01.270 the shore kinārā, tīra --
S01.280 the cave gufā The hunter lit a torch and entered the cave.
S01.310 the water pāṇī, jala The inhabitants get their water from the river.
S01.320 the sea sāgara, samudara, samundara The ship is sailing in the sea.
S01.322 calm sakūna a calm sea
S01.323 rough(2) rollā a rough sea
S01.324 the foam jhaga, caga Foam formed on the polluted river.
S01.329 the ocean mahāsāgara The Pacific Ocean is larger than the Atlantic Ocean.
S01.330 the lake jhīla, nālā This lake's water is safe for drinking.
S01.340 the bay khāṛī --
S01.341 the lagoon jhīla --
S01.342 the reef -- The ship was wrecked on a reef.
S01.343 the cape -- --
S01.350 the wave lahara The tallest waves are found in the Pacific Ocean.
S01.352 the tide -- --
S01.353 the low tide -- During low tide the rock is exposed.
S01.354 the high tide -- The rock is not visible during high tide.
S01.360 the river or stream nadī, dariā --
S01.362 the whirlpool bhavara, cakarī --
S01.370 the spring or well jharanā, khu --
S01.380 the swamp daladala Be careful, there are crocodiles in the swamp.
S01.390 the waterfall jharanā, caśmā The waterfall runs dry in the summer.
S01.410 the woods or forest vaṇa, baṇa, jaṅgal There are many wild animals in the forest.
S01.430 the wood lakaṛī The table is made of wood.
S01.440 the stone or rock pathara, vajara, vaṭṭā --
S01.450 the earthquake bhucāla, pucāla The house was destroyed by an earthquake.
S01.510 the sky asamāna, ākāśa There were white clouds in the blue sky.
S01.520 the sun sūraja The sun rises in the east.
S01.530 the moon cana, candaramā The moon shone brightly in the clear night sky.
S01.540 the star tārā, sitārā The stars shone brightly in the clear night sky.
S01.550 the lightning bijalī, rośanī --
S01.560 the thunder gūnja --
S01.570 the bolt of lightning -- --
S01.580 the storm tūfāna, neri It's more than just rain-it's a real storm!
S01.590 the rainbow pīṅgha After the storm, a rainbow appeared in the sky.
S01.610 the light parakāśa, jōtī The fire gave a bright light.
S01.620 the darkness anhērī, handherā,nerā After the sunset, darkness quickly fell.
S01.630 the shade or shadow sāyā,chāyiyā --
S01.640 the dew ōsa, trela The trees were wet from the morning dew.
S01.710 the air havā, pavana The air is cool and fresh here in the mountains.
S01.720 the wind havā The wind blew so hard it knocked down the tree.
S01.730 the cloud badala There were white clouds in the blue sky.
S01.740 the fog tunda, dhunda The fog is so thick I can't see the road.
S01.750 the rain varakhā, bāraśa, barasāta After the rain, the sun appeared again.
S01.760 the snow barafa Snow fell all night and covered the city.
S01.770 the ice barafa A layer of ice formed over the lake.
S01.780 the weather mausama I hope that tomorrow the weather will be nicer than today.
S01.810 the fire aga, javālā The fire is brightly burning in the fireplace.
S01.820 the flame aga,javālā,bhambara The flames were so high they reached the helicopter.
S01.830 the smoke dhūāṁ Heavy smoke billowed from the burning house.
S01.840 the ash bhasama, rakha, sava He let the cigarette ash fall on the floor.
S01.841 the embers aṅgāre --
S01.851 to burn(1) jalāṇā She burnt all her ex-boyfriend's old letters.
S01.852 to burn(2) jalaṇā Our house is burning! Call the fire fighters!
S01.860 to light jalāṇā She lit a match.
S01.861 to extinguish bhujānā The fire fighters extinguished the fire.
S01.870 the match mācisa --
S01.880 the firewood lakaṛī, lakaṛa The boys collected firewood and built a bonfire.
S01.890 the charcoal -- This fireplace is lit by charcoal, not wood.

Chapter 2 - Kinship
S02.100 the person bandā This table can be lifted by one person.
S02.210 the man marada, ādamī, jaṇā The man had a long beard.
S02.220 the woman aurata, janānī The woman wore a pretty dress.
S02.230 male(1) purakha, marada, puraśa I have ten male and twelve female students.
S02.240 female(1) mādā, mahilā I have ten male and twelve female students.
S02.250 the boy laṛakā, munḍā, jataka, chorā One day this boy will grow to be a man.
S02.251 the young man javāna The young man was not married.
S02.260 the girl kumārī, kuṛī, laṛakī One day this girl will grow to be a woman.
S02.261 the young woman muṭiyāra --
S02.270 the child(1) bāla, baccā Many children were playing in the water.
S02.280 the baby baccā, bāla She's still a baby and can only have milk.
S02.310 the husband patī, khasama, admī She married her husband last year.
S02.320 the wife aurata, bīvī, voṭī He married his wife last year.
S02.330 to marry vihāyuṇā She married a man 10 years her junior.
S02.340 the wedding śādī, vyāha When we were married, a thousand people came to the wedding.
S02.341 the divorce talāka, likhata After the divorce, he married another woman.
S02.350 the father bāpa, pitā, pio My father came home late last night.
S02.360 the mother mātā, ammā, māyī My mother came home late last night.
S02.370 the parents mātā-pitā, māṁ-bāpa, māṁ-pio My parents live in the village.
S02.380 the married man viāyā As a married man he had more privileges.
S02.390 the married woman vieyā As a married woman she had more privileges.
S02.410 the son bēṭā, puttara, putā, betā I have one son and one daughter.
S02.420 the daughter guḍī, bēṭī, dhī, larkī, chokrī I have one son and one daughter.
S02.430 the child(2) bacā, balaka, bāla I have two children, a son and a daughter.
S02.440 the brother bharā prā, bhāyī I have two brothers, one younger and one older than me.
S02.444 the older brother vaḍērā pāī, vīra My older brother is married, but my younger brother still lives at home.
S02.445 the younger brother nikka prā My older brother is married, but my younger brother still lives at home.
S02.450 the sister bhaiṇa, paiṇa I have two sisters, one younger and one older than me.
S02.454 the older sister vaḍērī bhaiṇa, vaḍērī paiṇa My older sister is married, but my younger sister still lives at home.
S02.455 the younger sister chuṭērī bhaiṇa, nikkī paiṇa My older sister is married, but my younger sister still lives at home.
S02.456 the sibling -- I have two siblings, one brother and one sister.
S02.458 the twins jhuṛā --
S02.460 the grandfather nānā, dādā My grandfather is 80 years old.
S02.461 the old man bābā, buḍṛā That old man looks like my grandfather.
S02.470 the grandmother dādī, nānī My grandmother is 70 years old.
S02.471 the old woman buḍḍhī, māyī That old woman looks like my grandmother.
S02.480 the grandson pōtā, potrā, dotrā My grandson is 5 years older than my granddaughter.
S02.490 the granddaughter pōtī, dotī, dotrī My grandson is 5 years older than my granddaughter.
S02.510 the uncle māmā, cācā, tāyā I have two uncles, one on my father's side and one on my mother's side.
S02.511 the mother's brother māmā, māmū --
S02.512 the father's brother cācā, tāyā --
S02.520 the aunt phophi, bhūyā, māsī --
S02.521 the mother's sister māsī --
S02.522 the father's sister phophi, bhūyā --
S02.530 the nephew bhatījā, patijā, pānjā --
S02.540 the niece bhatījī, patijī, pānjī --
S02.550 the cousin masera (bhāi), phophera (bhāi), cacera (bhāi) --
S02.560 the ancestors āl, vaḍḍavaḍere --
S02.570 the descendants vārasa, āla --
S02.610 the father-in-law (of a man) sorā --
S02.611 the father-in-law (of a woman) sorā --
S02.620 the mother-in-law (of a man) sasa --
S02.621 the mother-in-law (of a woman) sasa --
S02.630 the son-in-law (of a man) damāda, javāy'ī --
S02.631 the son-in-law (of a woman) damāda, javā'yī --
S02.640 the daughter-in-law (of a man) bahū, nūha --
S02.641 the daughter-in-law (of a woman) bahū, nūha --
S02.710 the stepfather matareya pio --
S02.720 the stepmother -- --
S02.730 the stepson matareya puttara --
S02.740 the stepdaughter -- --
S02.750 the orphan anātha, yatīma --
S02.760 the widow vidhavā, ranḍī, bevā --
S02.770 the widower raḍā, ranḍā, ranḍua --
S02.810 the relatives riśatēdāra, sāka --
S02.820 the family khānadāna, parivāra, ṭabbara --
S02.910 I maiṁ --
S02.920 you (singular) --
S02.930 he/she/it usa, e --
S02.940 we hama, asi --
S02.941 we (inclusive) hama, asi --
S02.942 we (exclusive) hama, asi --
S02.950 you (plural) tainū, tusī --
S02.960 they unnā --

Chapter 3 - Animals
S03.110 the animal paśū, jānavara, havāna, ḍaṅgara On the small island they found rabbits, foxes, snakes, mice and many other animals.
S03.120 male(2) nara Only male lions have manes.
S03.130 female(2) mādā Only female monkeys look after their offspring.
S03.150 the livestock -- --
S03.160 the pasture carāgāha --
S03.180 the herdsman caravāhā --
S03.190 the stable or stall tabēlā --
S03.200 the cattle ḍaṅgara --
S03.210 the bull sanḍhā --
S03.220 the ox ṭaggā, dānda --
S03.230 the cow gai, gāṅa --
S03.240 the calf vachā --
S03.250 the sheep peḍa The farmers raised sheep for wool and milk.
S03.260 the ram chatarā, bakarā, peḍā --
S03.280 the ewe chatarī, peḍa --
S03.290 the lamb lēlā, dumbā --
S03.320 the boar sūra, baralā The hunter shot the boar in the forest.
S03.340 the sow baralī, sūranī --
S03.350 the pig sūra, baralā There are three pigs in the sty.
S03.360 the goat bakarī --
S03.370 the he-goat bakarā --
S03.380 the kid memanā --
S03.410 the horse ghōṛā, koṛā The policeman mounted the horse and rode away.
S03.420 the stallion ghōṛā, koṛā --
S03.440 the mare ghōṛī, koṛī --
S03.450 the foal or colt -- --
S03.460 the donkey gadhī, gadhā, khotā That donkey is almost as large as a horse.
S03.470 the mule khaccara --
S03.500 the fowl kukaṛā --
S03.520 the cock/rooster muragā, kukaṛā The farmer owns ten hens but only two roosters.
S03.540 the hen muragī, kukaṛī The farmer owns ten hens but only two roosters.
S03.550 the chicken muragī, kukaṛī --
S03.560 the goose -- --
S03.570 the duck bataḵẖa --
S03.580 the nest ghōnsalā, alaṇa Many birds build nests in trees.
S03.581 the bird panchī --
S03.582 the seagull -- --
S03.583 the heron bagalā --
S03.584 the eagle ukāba --
S03.585 the hawk bāja --
S03.586 the vulture gidha --
S03.591 the bat camagidaṛa, camkadaṛa --
S03.592 the parrot tōtā --
S03.593 the crow kāga, kāṁ --
S03.594 the dove kuggī --
S03.596 the owl ullū --
S03.610 the dog kutā --
S03.614 the rabbit kharagōśa, sāyā --
S03.620 the cat bilī --
S03.622 the opossum -- --
S03.630 the mouse or rat cūhā --
S03.650 the fish machī --
S03.652 the fin -- --
S03.653 the scale kanḍe --
S03.654 the gill -- --
S03.655 the shell -- --
S03.661 the shark -- --
S03.662 the porpoise or dolphin -- --
S03.663 the whale vēlyha --
S03.664 the stingray -- --
S03.665 the freshwater eel -- --
S03.710 the wolf bhēṛīyā --
S03.720 the lion śera --
S03.730 the bear bhālū, rīcha --
S03.740 the fox lūbaṛa, lūmbarī --
S03.750 the deer hirana, harana --
S03.760 the monkey bāndara --
S03.770 the elephant hāthī --
S03.780 the camel ūṭha, ūntḥa --
S03.810 the insect kīṛā --
S03.811 the head louse -- --
S03.812 the nit -- --
S03.813 the flea pisū, makkhī --
S03.814 the centipede kanakhajūrā --
S03.815 the scorpion bicchū, ṭhuṅā --
S03.816 the cockroach kokarōca --
S03.817 the ant kīṛī --
S03.818 the spider makaṛī --
S03.819 the spider web makaṛī kā jālā --
S03.820 the bee makhī --
S03.821 the beeswax -- --
S03.822 the beehive chatā --
S03.823 the wasp tumūṛī --
S03.830 the fly makhī --
S03.831 the sandfly or midge or gnat -- --
S03.832 the mosquito machara --
S03.840 the worm kiṛā --
S03.850 the snake sapa --
S03.910 the firefly juganū --
S03.920 the butterfly titalī --
S03.930 the grasshopper ṭiḍā, ṭiḍḍā --
S03.940 the snail ghanḍoyā --
S03.950 the frog ḍaḍū --
S03.960 the lizard kiralī, chipakalī --
S03.970 the crocodile or alligator magaramacha --
S03.980 the turtle -- --

Chapter 4 - The body
S04.110 the body śarīra, butta, kāṭha --
S04.120 the skin or hide khaladī, jilda --
S04.130 the flesh carabī --
S04.140 the hair vāla --
S04.142 the beard dāṛhī --
S04.144 the body hair vāla --
S04.145 the pubic hair vāla --
S04.146 the dandruff sikkarī, khushakī --
S04.150 the blood khūna, lahu, ratta --
S04.151 the vein or artery raga --
S04.160 the bone haḍḍī --
S04.162 the rib paslī --
S04.170 the horn sīngha --
S04.180 the tail pūcha, duma --
S04.190 the back pichalī, pīṭha --
S04.191 the spine dhundari, riṛha kī haḍḍī --
S04.200 the head sara --
S04.201 the temples -- --
S04.202 the skull khopṛī --
S04.203 the brain dimāga --
S04.204 the face mūha --
S04.205 the forehead mathā --
S04.207 the jaw jabaṛā The boxer punched his opponent on the jaw.
S04.208 the cheek -- --
S04.209 the chin ṭhōḍī --
S04.210 the eye akkha, akkhī, diddā, nāina --
S04.212 the eyebrow parvaṭē --
S04.213 the eyelid palaka --
S04.214 the eyelash palaka --
S04.215 to blink jhapakanā I blinked as I came out into the sunlight.
S04.220 the ear kanna --
S04.221 the earlobe -- --
S04.222 the earwax -- --
S04.230 the nose naka --
S04.231 the nostril nāsa, nasāṁ --
S04.232 the nasal mucus -- --
S04.240 the mouth mūha --
S04.241 the beak cujha, conja --
S04.250 the lip hōnṭha, bula --
S04.260 the tongue jība --
S04.270 the tooth danda --
S04.271 the gums masuṛa --
S04.272 the molar tooth -- --
S04.280 the neck garadana, tōṇa --
S04.281 the nape of the neck -- --
S04.290 the throat gaṭā, saṅgha --
S04.300 the shoulder monḍe, kandhe --
S04.301 the shoulderblade -- --
S04.302 the collarbone -- --
S04.310 the arm banha --
S04.312 the armpit kacha --
S04.320 the elbow kūhaṇī --
S04.321 the wrist viṇi, kalāī, biṇi --
S04.330 the hand hatha --
S04.331 the palm of the hand hathelī --
S04.340 the finger uṅgalī --
S04.342 the thumb añgūṭhā --
S04.344 the fingernail nihu --
S04.345 the claw panja The cat dug his claws into my leg.
S04.350 the leg ṭaga, lata, taṅga --
S04.351 the thigh paṭa --
S04.352 the calf of the leg -- --
S04.360 the knee gōḍā --
S04.370 the foot pada, paira --
S04.371 the ankle giṭā --
S04.372 the heel aḍī --
S04.374 the footprint -- --
S04.380 the toe uṅgala --
S04.392 the wing para --
S04.393 the feather khabha, khambha, para --
S04.400 the chest chātī --
S04.410 the breast hika, mumme --
S04.412 the nipple or teat thaṇa --
S04.420 the udder caḍā, havanna, khīrī --
S04.430 the navel -- --
S04.440 the heart cita, dila --
S04.441 the lung phepaṛe --
S04.450 the liver jigaṛa --
S04.451 the kidney guradā --
S04.452 the spleen tillī --
S04.460 the stomach medā Her stomach could not digest the tough meat.
S04.461 the intestines or guts antaṛī --
S04.462 the waist kamara --
S04.463 the hip laka --
S04.464 the buttocks citaṛa, laka --
S04.470 the womb -- --
S04.490 the testicles āṇḍa, tattaya --
S04.492 the penis liṅga, lula, luna --
S04.510 to breathe sāha lenā --
S04.520 to yawn ubāsī lenā --
S04.521 to hiccough hicakī lenā, hicakanā --
S04.530 to cough khaṅgnā --
S04.540 to sneeze chikaṇā --
S04.550 to perspire pasinā ānā --
S04.560 to spit thukaṇā --
S04.570 to vomit ultī karnā --
S04.580 to bite kāṭanā --
S04.590 to lick cāṭantā --
S04.591 to dribble conā Watch out, the baby is dribbling on your shirt!
S04.610 to sleep sonā --
S04.612 to snore kharāṭe lenā --
S04.620 to dream sufanā dekhnā --
S04.630 to wake up jāganā I wake up at seven every morning.
S04.640 to fart -- --
S04.650 to piss -- --
S04.660 to shit -- --
S04.670 to have sex -- --
S04.680 to shiver ṭhiṭharanā, kambṅā --
S04.690 to bathe nahānā She likes to bathe before going to bed.
S04.710 to beget jamaṇā --
S04.720 to be born janam lenā --
S04.730 pregnant -- --
S04.732 to conceive -- --
S04.740 to be alive jinā I thought he was dead, but he's still alive.
S04.750 to die maraṇā --
S04.751 to drown ḍubanā The dog fell into the river and drowned.
S04.760 to kill māranā --
S04.770 the corpse lāśa --
S04.780 to bury dabanā --
S04.790 the grave kabara --
S04.810 strong dadā, tagaṛā She's a strong woman and can lift 50 kilos.
S04.820 weak kamjora He's so weak that he cannot even lift 5 kilos.
S04.830 healthy sihatamana --
S04.840 sick/ill bimāra --
S04.841 the fever bukhāra --
S04.842 the goitre/goiter -- --
S04.843 the cold nazalā He caught a cold after swimming in the lake at night.
S04.850 the wound or sore zakhama --
S04.852 the bruise jharīṭa --
S04.853 the swelling sojana --
S04.854 the itch khāraśa, khāriśa The itch was caused by an insect bite.
S04.855 the blister chālā --
S04.856 the boil phoṛā, ubāla The boy's body is covered in boils.
S04.857 the pus pīpa --
S04.858 the scar dāga --
S04.860 to cure ilāja karanā The treatment cured the patient's illness.
S04.870 the physician dokaṭara --
S04.880 the medicine davāyī --
S04.890 the poison zahara --
S04.910 tired thaktāna --
S04.912 to rest ṭikanā --
S04.920 lazy posatī, susta --
S04.930 bald ganjā --
S04.940 lame laṅgṛā --
S04.950 deaf dorā --
S04.960 mute guṅgā --
S04.970 blind annā --
S04.980 drunk śarābī They became drunk after drinking too much beer.
S04.990 naked naṅgā The child does not like to wear clothes, and goes around naked.

Chapter 5 - Food and drink
S05.110 to eat khāṇā The child has eaten the fruit.
S05.120 the food khaṇa --
S05.121 cooked pakiyā Cooked bananas taste even better than raw bananas.
S05.122 raw kacī Cooked bananas taste even better than raw bananas.
S05.123 ripe pakī Unripe bananas have a green colour, whereas ripe bananas are yellow.
S05.124 unripe kacī Unripe bananas have a green colour, whereas ripe bananas are yellow.
S05.125 rotten -- a rotten apple or mango
S05.130 to drink pīṇā drink water
S05.140 to be hungry pukhā hoṇā --
S05.141 the famine kaita --
S05.150 to be thirsty taryaya honā --
S05.160 to suck chusna, cupnā The baby is sucking milk.
S05.180 to chew cabānā This meat is so tough I can hardly chew it!
S05.181 to swallow haṛapaṇā, uṅgalanā You need to chew this meat well before you can swallow it.
S05.190 to choke -- The smoke was choking the fire fighters./The assailant choked his victim.
S05.210 to cook pakānā She was cooking a soup for her mother.
S05.220 to boil ubālanā The water is boiling.
S05.230 to roast or fry talanā --
S05.240 to bake pakāṇā We are baking some bread.
S05.250 the oven tadūra, tandūra --
S05.260 the pot baratana, panḍā He is cooking soup for the whole family in a big pot.
S05.270 the kettle hāṇḍī, ketlī The water is boiling in the kettle.
S05.280 the pan hāṇḍī --
S05.310 the dish thālī --
S05.320 the plate palēṭa --
S05.330 the bowl bāṭī, pyālā --
S05.340 the jug/pitcher ghaṛā --
S05.350 the cup kapa, pyālī --
S05.360 the saucer kiracha --
S05.370 the spoon camacī He ate the soup with a spoon.
S05.380 the knife(1) cākū, churī --
S05.390 the fork kāṇṭā --
S05.391 the tongs cimaṭā, ucā --
S05.410 the meal khāṇā Dinner is the main meal of the day for most people.
S05.420 the breakfast nāśatā --
S05.430 the lunch din dī roṭī --
S05.440 the dinner rāt dā khāṇā --
S05.450 the supper -- --
S05.460 to peel chilanā This knife is good for peeling potatoes.
S05.470 to sieve or to strain chānaṇā She strained the coffee before serving it.
S05.480 to scrape tarāśanā Scrape the carrots and slice them thinly.
S05.490 to stir or to mix rilānā --
S05.510 the bread rōṭī --
S05.530 the dough tauṇā, āṭā --
S05.540 to knead gunṇā Knead the dough for three minutes.
S05.550 the flour āṭā --
S05.560 to crush or to grind pīnṇā, ragaṛa --
S05.570 the mill kārakhānā --
S05.580 the mortar(1) laṅgarī --
S05.590 the pestle ghōṭaṇā, chaṭū vaṭā --
S05.610 the meat mīṭa, ghośta --
S05.630 the sausage -- --
S05.640 the soup sūpa Clear chicken soup can relieve the symptoms of the common cold.
S05.650 the vegetables sabazī --
S05.660 the bean phalī --
S05.700 the potato ālū --
S05.710 the fruit phala --
S05.712 the bunch guchā --
S05.750 the fig anjīra --
S05.760 the grape aṅgūra --
S05.770 the nut khuśaka mevā --
S05.780 the olive zaitūna --
S05.790 the oil tēla --
S05.791 the grease or fat carabī --
S05.810 the salt namaka, lūṇa --
S05.820 the pepper miraca --
S05.821 the chili pepper miraca --
S05.840 the honey śaida --
S05.850 the sugar khunḍa, mithā --
S05.860 the milk dhuda --
S05.870 to milk coṇā --
S05.880 the cheese panīra --
S05.890 the butter makhaṇa --
S05.900 the drink --
S05.910 the mead -- --
S05.920 the wine śarāba --
S05.930 the beer biara --
S05.940 the fermented drink śarābā --
S05.970 the egg anḍā --
S05.971 the yolk jaradī --

Chapter 6 - Clothing and grooming
S06.110 to put on pāṇā The child can already put on his clothes by himself.
S06.120 the clothing or clothes kapaṛē, līṛē --
S06.130 the tailor darajī --
S06.210 the cloth kapaṛā --
S06.220 the wool una --
S06.230 the linen sūtī --
S06.240 the cotton sūtī --
S06.250 the silk rēśama --
S06.270 the felt kambala, cādāra --
S06.280 the fur -- --
S06.290 the leather camaṛā --
S06.310 to spin kātanā --
S06.320 the spindle -- --
S06.330 to weave buṇnā --
S06.340 the loom khaḍī --
S06.350 to sew tarpāī, savāī --
S06.360 the needle(1) suyī --
S06.370 the awl āra --
S06.380 the thread dāgā --
S06.390 to dye raṅgnā The weaver dyed the cloth bright red.
S06.410 the cloak -- --
S06.411 the poncho -- --
S06.420 the (woman's) dress pōśāka --
S06.430 the coat kōṭa --
S06.440 the shirt kamīza, kuṛatā --
S06.450 the collar kālara --
S06.460 the skirt leheṅgā, ghagarā --
S06.461 the grass-skirt -- --
S06.480 the trousers patalūna, śalvāra --
S06.490 the sock or stocking jurāba --
S06.510 the shoe jutī --
S06.520 the boot jutā, būṭa --
S06.540 the shoemaker mōcī --
S06.550 the hat or cap ṭōpī --
S06.570 the belt paṭā --
S06.580 the glove dasatānā --
S06.590 the veil nakāba, paṛadā During the wedding the bride wore a veil that hid her face.
S06.610 the pocket jēba He put the money in his shirt pocket.
S06.620 the button baṭana --
S06.630 the pin sūyī The torn shirt was held together by pins.
S06.710 the ornament or adornment jēvara, gahiṇā Her hair was adorned with silver oranments.
S06.720 the jewel hīrā --
S06.730 the ring aṅgūṭhī, chāpa --
S06.740 the bracelet kaṅgana, vaṅgā She wore a solid gold bracelet.
S06.750 the necklace hāra, laṛī Her necklace was made of pearls and coral.
S06.760 the bead tupakā --
S06.770 the earring ḍaḍī, cumakā The pirate wore one earring.
S06.780 the headband or headdress -- --
S06.790 the tattoo -- --
S06.810 the handkerchief or rag rumāla --
S06.820 the towel tauliyā, pacakā --
S06.910 the comb kaṅgī --
S06.920 the brush buraśa He used the brush to thoroughly brush his hair.
S06.921 the plait/braid gutta --
S06.930 the razor usatarā While he was shaving the razor cut his face.
S06.940 the ointment lēpa --
S06.950 the soap sābaṇa A bar of soap was placed by the sink.
S06.960 the mirror āyīnā, śīśā He looked at himself in the mirror that hung on the wall.

Chapter 7 - The house
S07.110 to live guzāranā, jīvanā A family of five lives in that large house.
S07.120 the house kera, kāra --
S07.130 the hut jhaumpaṛī, kuṭīyā --
S07.131 the garden-house -- --
S07.140 the tent tambū --
S07.150 the yard or court daragāha --
S07.160 the men's house -- --
S07.170 the cookhouse -- --
S07.180 the meeting house -- --
S07.210 the room kamarā --
S07.220 the door or gate daravāzā, buhā --
S07.221 the doorpost -- --
S07.230 the lock tālā --
S07.231 the latch or door-bolt -- --
S07.240 the key cābī, kunjī --
S07.250 the window khiṛakī, bārī --
S07.260 the floor pharaśa --
S07.270 the wall divāra, kanda The walls of our house are very thick.
S07.310 the fireplace aṅgīṭhī --
S07.320 the stove culhā She put the kettle on the stove and lit the fire.
S07.330 the chimney cimanī --
S07.370 the ladder jīnā, sīṛhī, poḍī --
S07.420 the bed bisatara, manjī --
S07.421 the pillow sirahāṇā, takiyā --
S07.422 the blanket kambala, cādara --
S07.430 the chair kurasī --
S07.440 the table mēza --
S07.450 the lamp or torch dīvā, battī --
S07.460 the candle mōmbattī --
S07.470 the shelf -- Put it back on the top shelf.
S07.480 the trough -- --
S07.510 the roof chata --
S07.520 the thatch ghāha phūsā --
S07.530 the ridgepole -- --
S07.540 the rafter -- --
S07.550 the beam bīmā, śatīra --
S07.560 the post or pole khambā a fence post
S07.570 the board phaṭā --
S07.580 the arch kamānā --
S07.610 the mason misatarī --
S07.620 the brick iṭa --
S07.630 the mortar(2) gārā, cimenṭa --
S07.640 the adobe -- --

Chapter 8 - Agriculture and vegetation
S08.110 the farmer kisāna The poor farmer did not own the land he cultivated.
S08.120 the field khēta The field was planted with cabbage.
S08.130 the garden bāga, bagīcā Behind the house was a garden where the family grew vegetables.
S08.150 to cultivate vahanā There is no more land left to cultivate.
S08.160 the fence vāṛa --
S08.170 the ditch khaḍā --
S08.210 to plough/plow hala --
S08.212 the furrow -- --
S08.220 to dig khodana, guḍana --
S08.230 the spade kahī, kasī --
S08.240 the shovel bēlacā --
S08.250 the hoe kihī, kahī --
S08.260 the fork(2)/pitchfork kāṇṭā --
S08.270 the rake -- --
S08.310 to sow bījaṇā --
S08.311 the seed bīja, dāṇā --
S08.320 to mow -- --
S08.330 the sickle or scythe dātarī, dātī --
S08.340 to thresh -- --
S08.350 the threshing-floor -- --
S08.410 the harvest fasala --
S08.420 the grain dāṇā, anāja --
S08.430 the wheat kaṇaka --
S08.440 the barley jauṁ --
S08.450 the rye -- --
S08.460 the oats -- --
S08.470 the maize/corn makī, makai The bought corn-on-the-cob from the vendor in the park.
S08.480 the rice cāvala, cola They ate their rice with the stew.
S08.510 the grass ghāha Green grass was growing in the forest clearing.
S08.520 the hay phūsa, caṭhā --
S08.530 the plant paudā, buṭā --
S08.531 to plant lagānā, lāṇā --
S08.540 the root mūlī, jaṛa, munḍa --
S08.550 the branch śāḵẖa, ṭahiṇī --
S08.560 the leaf patā --
S08.570 the flower phula --
S08.600 the tree pēṛa, buṭā --
S08.610 the oak -- --
S08.620 the beech -- --
S08.630 the birch -- --
S08.640 the pine -- --
S08.650 the fir -- --
S08.660 the acorn -- --
S08.670 the vine bēla, vēla --
S08.680 the tobacco tambākū --
S08.690 to smoke pīṇā, tohānā --
S08.691 the pipe paiypa, muralī, hukā --
S08.720 the tree stump -- --
S08.730 the tree trunk taṇā --
S08.740 the forked branch -- --
S08.750 the bark chilaṛa --
S08.760 the sap -- The farmers collected the sap from the maple trees to make syrup.
S08.810 the palm tree -- Dates grow on palm trees.
S08.820 the coconut nariyāla, khōpā The boy picked a green coconut and drank its juice.
S08.830 the citrus fruit -- --
S08.840 the banana kēlā The monkey peeled the banana and ate it.
S08.850 the banyan pipala --
S08.910 the sweet potato śakarkanjī --
S08.912 the yam -- --
S08.920 the cassava/manioc -- The farmer grew cassava/manioc to feed his family.
S08.930 the gourd kadū --
S08.931 the pumpkin or squash kadū --
S08.940 the bamboo bānsa --
S08.941 the sugar cane ganā --
S08.960 the fish poison -- --
S08.970 the nettle -- --
S08.980 the mushroom -- --

Chapter 9 - Basic actions and technology
S09.110 to do karanā A has climbed on a tree. B says to A: "What are you doing up there?"
S09.120 the work kāma kāja I can't go out because I have too much work.
S09.140 to bend jhukanā I'll bend the branches away so that you can get through.
S09.150 to fold samēṭaṇā, tehakaranā She folded the piece of paper and put it in the envelope.
S09.160 to tie bandhanā He tied his dog to a tree.
S09.161 to untie kholaṇā He untied his dog from the tree.
S09.180 the chain janjīra, saṇgalī --
S09.190 the rope rasā They tied up the prisoner with rope.
S09.192 the knot ganḍha, ganḍa Can you help me undo this knot?
S09.210 to strike or hit or beat vajāṇā, mārnā --
S09.211 to pound ghōṭaṇā He pounded the door with his fist.
S09.220 to cut kapanā, kaṭaṇā The thieves cut the phone wires and entered the house.
S09.221 to cut down -- Before building the road, we first have to cut down many trees.
S09.222 to chop kutaranā chopping wood for the fire
S09.223 to stab ghōpanā Brutus stabbed Caesar to death.
S09.230 the knife(2) cākū, churī To chop the onions I need a knife.
S09.240 the scissors or shears kain̄cī --
S09.250 the axe/ax kavādī, kulhāṛī --
S09.251 the adze -- --
S09.260 to break phōṛanā, tōṛanā The thieves got into the house by breaking a window.
S09.261 broken -- The radio is broken, it won't turn on.
S09.270 to split tōṛanā This log is too large, we have to split it into two.
S09.280 to tear phāṛanā She tore a piece of her blouse to use as a bandange.
S09.290 to skin camaṛā utāranā, khāla utāranā The cook skinned the chicken before frying it.
S09.310 to rub ragaṛanā He rubbed the fragrant leaves between his fingers.
S09.320 to stretch phailāṇā Don't stretch the rubber band too much.
S09.330 to pull chikaṇā Help me move the piano: you push and I'll pull.
S09.340 to spread out -- They spread out the mat on the ground and sat on it.
S09.341 to hang up -- Hang your coat up on the hook.
S09.342 to press dabaṇā The little boys pressed their noses against the glass.
S09.343 to squeeze nicoṛanā She squeezed some oranges and drank the juice.
S09.350 to pour pauṇā He poured the wine into the glass.
S09.360 to wash dhōṇā She washed her son's feet.
S09.370 to sweep -- He swept the path in front of the house.
S09.380 the broom jhāṛū --
S09.422 the tool hathiara --
S09.430 the carpenter tarakhāṇa, bāḍhāi --
S09.440 to build baṇāṇā build a house
S09.460 to bore -- --
S09.461 to hollow out khōkhalā karanā --
S09.480 the saw ārī One needs a saw to cut down a tree.
S09.490 the hammer hathauṛā --
S09.500 the nail kila --
S09.560 the glue gūnda --
S09.600 the blacksmith misatarī, luhāra --
S09.610 to forge baṭhī, bhaṭhī From a piece of scrap iron, the blacksmith forged a sword blade.
S09.620 the anvil -- --
S09.630 to cast ṭālanā The goldsmith melted the coins and cast them into a goblet.
S09.640 the gold sōnā The bracelet is made of gold.
S09.650 the silver cāndī The necklace is made of silver.
S09.660 the copper tāmbā The coin is made of copper.
S09.670 the iron lōhā --
S09.680 the lead sikā --
S09.690 the tin or tinplate kalī The cup was made of tin.
S09.710 the potter kameyāra The potter made jars.
S09.720 to mould/mold tālaṇa She molded the clay into a dish before firing it.
S09.730 the clay miṭī --
S09.740 the glass galāsa, śīśā The window is made of glass.
S09.750 to weave or plait/braid bunṇā --
S09.760 the basket ṭokrī She carried the fruit home in a basket.
S09.770 the mat tapaṛa, ṭāṭa --
S09.771 the rug kalīna --
S09.780 the netbag -- --
S09.790 the fan jhalā, pukhā The lady had a delicate fan made of sandalwood.
S09.791 to fan -- People in the audience were fanning themselves with their programmes.
S09.810 to carve tarāśaṇā, taropanā Michaelangelo carved this figure from a single block of marble.
S09.820 the sculptor -- Rodin was a French sculptor.
S09.830 the statue buta The sculptor made a statue of a woman.
S09.840 the chisel -- --
S09.880 the paint raṅga --
S09.890 to paint -- We need to paint our house.

Chapter 10 - Motion
S10.110 to move haṭānā, halānā This rock is so heavy that it cannot be moved.
S10.120 to turn mōṛanā to turn one's head
S10.130 to turn around -- He heard someone call out his name and turned around.
S10.140 to wrap lapēṭanā, ṭhapanā He wrapped the fish in leaves and steamed it.
S10.150 to roll gasīṭanā, marōṛanā He rolled the log down the hill.
S10.160 to drop ḍiganā, saṭanā We dropped the stone into the water.
S10.170 to twist vaṭaṇā, maroṛanā She twisted the wire around the branch.
S10.210 to rise uṭhanā The sun rises in the east.
S10.220 to raise or lift uṭhālaṇā --
S10.230 to fall giranā, ṭaiṇā The ripe coconut fell on the ground.
S10.240 to drip ṭapakanā The tap is dripping, shut it tightly!
S10.250 to throw suṭaṇā Don't throw stones, it's dangerous!
S10.252 to catch phaṛanā She caught the ball and passed it to her team mate.
S10.260 to shake halānā Shake the bottle before pouring out the sauce.
S10.320 to flow vagāṇā The river flows to the sea.
S10.330 to sink ḍubaṇā The coconut fell into the water and sank.
S10.340 to float taranā The raft floated on the river.
S10.350 to swim taeranā He drowned because he could not swim.
S10.351 to dive cubhī karanā Diving too deeply is dangerous.
S10.352 to splash chiṛakaṇā, suṭanā The girl splashed water in the boy's face.
S10.360 to sail taranā The ship sailed from America to Australia.
S10.370 to fly uḍanā Look at that bird flying up in the sky!
S10.380 to blow caļaṇā The wind is blowing hard.
S10.410 to crawl rīṅgnā The baby is still crawling, it can't walk yet.
S10.412 to kneel -- The messenger kneeled before the king.
S10.413 to crouch jhukanā She crouched under the sink to fix the pipes.
S10.420 to slide or slip tilakanā --
S10.430 to jump uchalanā The children were so happy they jumped up and down.
S10.431 to kick ṭhokara māranā He kicked the ball.
S10.440 to dance nacanā Though the music stopped they kept on dancing.
S10.450 to walk calanā, ṭuranā The children walk to school every day.
S10.451 to limp laṅgaṛānā After his foot injury he limped for months.
S10.460 to run nasaṇā They ran all the way to school.
S10.470 to go jāṇā Sometimes I go to school by car, sometimes on foot.
S10.471 to go up -- I went up on the roof to get a better view.
S10.472 to climb caṛhanā If you want to pick mangos, you must climb the tree.
S10.473 to go down -- Come down from the roof or you'll fall down.
S10.474 to go out -- Get out of here before you get hurt!
S10.480 to come āṅā When I came to school it was still closed.
S10.481 to come back paratanā He left and then came back an hour later.
S10.490 to leave nikalaṇā The guest arrived yesterday and left this morning.
S10.491 to disappear gāeba honā The man disappeared without a trace.
S10.510 to flee nasaṇā, naṭhaṇā Because of the fire they had to flee their home.
S10.520 to follow picchā karanā I came here first, my family followed me later.
S10.530 to pursue -- The policeman pursued the thief.
S10.550 to arrive pahucaṇā The guest arrived yesterday and left this morning.
S10.560 to approach ṭukanā, ḍhukanā As we approached the city we could see the lights in the distance.
S10.570 to enter varṇā She entered the room and sat down.
S10.610 to carry -- She carried her baby home.
S10.612 to carry in hand -- She carried a stone in her hand.
S10.613 to carry on shoulder -- He carried the books on his shoulder.
S10.614 to carry on head -- She carried the fruit basket on her head.
S10.615 to carry under the arm -- She carried her bag under her arm.
S10.620 to bring liyaṇā Please bring me the book you are holding.
S10.630 to send bhējaṇā She sent her parents some money.
S10.640 to lead -- The dog led the hunter to the fox.
S10.650 to drive calāṇā He can drive a car, but not a truck.
S10.660 to ride caṛhanā She rides her horse to work every day.
S10.670 to push dhasanā, dakēlanā Don't push me or I'll fall down.
S10.710 the road rasatā Many cars drove up and down the road.
S10.720 the path rāha, rā The path leads from the house to the field.
S10.740 the bridge pula A beautiful bridge stood over the river.
S10.750 the cart or wagon gaḍī, gaddī The cart was pulled by a horse.
S10.760 the wheel cakā The car has four wheels.
S10.770 the axle dhura, turnā --
S10.780 the yoke -- --
S10.810 the ship jahāja --
S10.830 the boat nāva, kaśatī --
S10.831 the canoe bēṛī --
S10.832 the outrigger -- --
S10.840 the raft bēṛā --
S10.850 the oar -- --
S10.851 the paddle -- --
S10.852 to row calānā --
S10.860 the rudder -- --
S10.870 the mast -- --
S10.880 the sail -- --
S10.890 the anchor laṅgara --
S10.910 the port bandaragāha --
S10.920 to land poucanā --

Chapter 11 - Possession
S11.110 to have -- The boy has a flower in his hand.
S11.120 to own āpaṇānānā The woman owns a car.
S11.130 to take lainā I took my bag and walked to the market square.
S11.140 to grasp pharaṇā Make sure you grasp the rope with both hands.
S11.150 to hold pharaṇā I held the baby in my arms.
S11.160 to get lainā --
S11.170 to keep rakhaṇā I like the hat you gave me and I'd like to keep it.
S11.180 the thing cīza My brother is rich, and many things in his house are never used.
S11.210 to give dēṇā The girl gave the boy a flower.
S11.220 to give back -- I lent you my watch, and you haven't given it back yet.
S11.240 to preserve rakhaṇā I think these traditional customs should be preserved. / The wreck was preserved by the muddy sea bed.
S11.250 to rescue bacāṇā He saved his friend from drowning.
S11.270 to destroy ujāṛanā The school was completely destroyed by fire.
S11.280 to injure -- The falling tree injured two loggers.
S11.310 to look for dēkhaṇā, ṭūṇaḍanā I am looking for my purse; I must have lost it on my way.
S11.320 to find labhaṇā I had lost my purse but I found it again.
S11.330 to lose khoṇā, guacaṇā I had lost my purse but I found it again.
S11.340 to let go chaḍanā She let go of the rope.
S11.430 the money paisā A thousand dollars is a lot of money.
S11.440 the coin pāṇa I don't have any coins left, only paper money.
S11.510 rich amīra The beggar invested his money so well that he became rich.
S11.520 poor ġarība After he became rich, he donated a lot of money to poor people.
S11.530 the beggar bhikhārī, fakīra The beggar collected money in a cup.
S11.540 stingy kanjūsa He is so stingy he doesn't heat his house even in winter.
S11.610 to lend dēṇā Can you lend me your ladder?
S11.620 to borrow lēṇā, maṅgaṇā Can I borrow your ladder?
S11.630 to owe -- My brother owes me 100 Euros.
S11.640 the debt karzā He now had enough money to pay off his father's outstanding debts.
S11.650 to pay tāranā I paid 100 Euros for this book.
S11.660 the bill ciṭhā --
S11.690 the tax taks, kara If you don't pay your taxes, you go to jail.
S11.770 to hire udāra lēṇā We need to hire/employ more workers if we want to finish the task in time.
S11.780 the wages mazadūrī The job's not very exciting, but he earns a good wage.
S11.790 to earn kamāṇā The job's not very exciting, but he earns a good wage.
S11.810 to buy kharīdanā I bought ten bananas for a dollar.
S11.820 to sell vēcanā He sold his car for five thousand Euros.
S11.830 to trade or barter saudā The farmer traded his cow for three goats.
S11.840 the merchant vapārī, bapārī --
S11.850 the market bazāra He is going to the market to buy vegetables.
S11.860 the shop/store dukāṇa There are no shops in the market, only open stalls.
S11.870 the price kīmata The price of these bananas is two dollars a bunch.
S11.880 expensive mehaṅgā Mangos are more expensive than bananas.
S11.890 cheap sastā Bananas are so cheap even poor people can afford them.
S11.910 to share vanḍanā The girl shared the cookies with her brother.
S11.920 to weigh miṇanā The bag weighs 10 kilograms.

Chapter 12 - Spatial relations
S12.110 the place jagā This place is too hot, let's look for a cooler place.
S12.120 to put rakhaṇā He put the book on the table.
S12.130 to sit beṇā Let's sit under the tree.
S12.140 to lie down lēṭanā She lay down in her bed but could not fall asleep.
S12.150 to stand khaloṇā He got tired of standing and sat down.
S12.160 to remain raheṇā I plan to remain here for a week.
S12.170 the remains avaśēśa, bākī After the earthquake, some people continued to live in the remains of their homes.
S12.210 to gather kaṭhē karanā He gathered wild mushrooms for dinner.
S12.212 to pick up cuṇanā She picked up the stone and then threw it down again.
S12.213 to pile up joṛanā He piled up the mushrooms he had collected.
S12.220 to join joṛanā He joined the two boards with nails.
S12.230 to separate vaḍīṇā, vakhareyān karanā He separated the two boards by pulling out the nails.
S12.232 to divide -- She divided the bananas equally among the children.
S12.240 to open kholanā He opened the door and went out.
S12.250 to shut banda karanā After coming in, he shut the door.
S12.260 to cover ḍhākṇā, ṭākaṇā He covered the child with a blanket.
S12.270 to hide lukānā Hide your money here, so no one can find it.
S12.310 high ucā The eagle flew so high it was hardly visible.
S12.320 low niccā The bat flew so low its wings brushed against the bush.
S12.330 the top cōṭī The top of the tree caught fire.
S12.340 the bottom -- The coin was lying on the bottom of the pond.
S12.350 the end(1) akhīra At the end of the village stood a small house.
S12.352 pointed nokīlā He pierced the leather with a pointed knife.
S12.353 the edge kinārā --
S12.360 the side tarphā There were trees on both sides of the house.
S12.370 the middle darmiyāna --
S12.410 right(1) siddā on the right side
S12.420 left putḥā on the left side
S12.430 near nēṛē She was standing near enough to hear what they said.
S12.440 far dūra --
S12.450 the east caṛdē, pūraba --
S12.460 the west lendē, pachama --
S12.470 the north parbata --
S12.480 the south dakhaṇa --
S12.530 to grow ugāuṇā, lāṇā --
S12.540 to measure menaṇā --
S12.541 the fathom -- --
S12.550 big baṛā, vaḍḍā --
S12.560 small chōṭē, nikkā --
S12.570 long labā, lammā --
S12.580 tall javāna, lammā --
S12.590 short nikā, choṭā --
S12.610 wide cauṛī, choṛā --
S12.620 narrow taṅga --
S12.630 thick mōṭī, mōṭā a thick board
S12.650 thin patalī, patalā a thin board
S12.670 deep gahirē, dhuṅgā --
S12.680 shallow -- --
S12.710 flat samatala, barābara --
S12.730 straight sarala, siddā --
S12.740 crooked -- --
S12.750 the hook -- --
S12.760 the corner konā --
S12.770 the cross -- --
S12.780 the square caurasa --
S12.810 round gōla --
S12.820 the circle dairā --
S12.830 the ball gēnda --
S12.840 the line āla, lakīra, līka --
S12.850 the hole bila, mōrī --
S12.920 similar ikōjē --
S12.930 to change badalanā The baby changed her life.

Chapter 13 - Quantity
S13.100 ten dasa ten trees
S13.101 eleven giārāna eleven trees
S13.102 twelve bārhāna twelve trees
S13.103 fifteen padarāna fifteen trees
S13.104 twenty vīha, vī twenty trees
S13.105 a hundred sau, sō a hundred trees
S13.106 a thousand hazāra a thousand trees
S13.107 to count giṇanā The teacher was counting the children as they got on the bus.
S13.140 all pūrā All the children got on the bus.
S13.150 many anēka, bhotē There are many children on the bus.
S13.160 more adhika, zyādā Today I found more mushrooms than yesterday.
S13.170 few kujha, ṭhoṛe There are few mushrooms in this forest.
S13.180 enough kāfī Today I found enough mushrooms for our supper.
S13.181 some canda Today we found some mushrooms.
S13.190 the crowd bhīṛa, pīṛa There was a large crowd of people waiting outside the theatre.
S13.210 full pure An empty pot is easier to carry than a full pot.
S13.220 empty khālī An empty pot is easier to carry than a full pot.
S13.230 the part vichaṛa, hissā The front part of the car was badly damaged.
S13.240 the half adhē, addā She cut the banana in two halves and gave one half to her husband.
S13.330 only ikalā, sirf Saturn is the only planet with rings.
S13.340 first pahilē, paillā You are the first person I see today.
S13.350 last ākhrī You were last person I saw before going to bed.
S13.360 second dūsarī, dūsarā You are the second person I see today.
S13.370 the pair juṭa, joṛā a pair of shoes
S13.380 twice/two times dūṇā He came over twice today.
S13.420 third tījē You are the third person I see today.
S13.440 three times tiguṇā He came over three times today.

Chapter 14 - Time
S14.110 the time samāṁ, vakata, velā Only time can heal her pain.
S14.120 the age umara At this age the baby can only drink milk.
S14.130 new navāṁ I bought a new car.
S14.140 young javāna He is too young to eat solid foods.
S14.150 old buḍḍā She is so old that all her teeth are gone.
S14.160 early jaldī Come early, otherwise you won't get any cake.
S14.170 late cirakē Don't come late, otherwise you won't get any cake.
S14.180 now huṇa I was sick last week, but I'm fine now.
S14.190 immediately paṭa, jhaṭa paṭa Come here immediately!
S14.210 fast tēza That man runs as fast as a horse.
S14.220 slow hauļī That horse runs as slow as a human.
S14.230 to hurry chētī Please hurry, or we'll be late.
S14.240 to be late -- We expected her by 10 o'clock, but she was late.
S14.250 to begin śuru karanā I began the work yesterday.
S14.252 to last reheṇā The dry season lasts three months.
S14.260 the end(2) akhīra At the end of the harvest there is a celebration.
S14.270 to finish mukaṇā I began building my house five years ago, but only finished it this year.
S14.280 to cease banda hoṇā The two sides promised to cease all hostile acts against each other.
S14.290 ready tiyāra I'm ready to go, but my husband is still in the shower.
S14.310 always hamēśā He always comes late.
S14.320 often akasara He often comes late, but today he's on time.
S14.330 sometimes kadī Sometimes he comes late, but more often he's on time.
S14.331 soon jaladī Don't go yet, he'll be here soon.
S14.332 for a long time -- He waited for a long time, but she never came.
S14.340 never kadi nahina I never eat pork.
S14.350 again dōbārā I was there yesterday, but today I'm going again.
S14.410 the day(1) dihāṛā The days are very hot here, but the nights are cool.
S14.420 the night rāta The days very hot here, but the nights are cool.
S14.430 the dawn savēra The sun comes up at dawn.
S14.440 the morning savēra The children go to school in the morning.
S14.450 the midday dupahira We prefer having dinner at midday rather than in the evening.
S14.451 the afternoon dupahira, duphahere In the aftertoon I like to take a nap.
S14.460 the evening sān̄jha, śāmī We prefer having dinner at midday rather than in the evening.
S14.470 today aja He's not in today, please call again tomorrow morning.
S14.480 tomorrow kala He's not in today, please call again tomorrow morning.
S14.481 the day after tomorrow -- She's leaving tomorrow and coming back the day after tomorrow.
S14.490 yesterday kala She left the day before yesterday and arrived yesterday.
S14.491 the day before yesterday parasōna She left the day before yesterday and arrived yesterday.
S14.510 the hour ghanṭā, kenṭā The day here lasts 15 hours in midsummer.
S14.530 the clock ghaṛī, kaṛī That clock on the wall was bought by my grandfather.
S14.610 the week hafatā, sapatāha I'm planning to stay for a week or two.
S14.620 Sunday ravīvāra On Sunday we go to church.
S14.630 Monday sōmavāra On Monday we go to work.
S14.640 Tuesday maṅgalavāra On Tuesday we're having a party.
S14.650 Wednesday budhavāra On Wednesday there is a holiday.
S14.660 Thursday vīravāra On Thursday my mother is arriving.
S14.670 Friday śukaravāra On Friday we go to the mosque.
S14.680 Saturday śanīvāra On Saturday we go to the synagogue.
S14.710 the month mahīnā There are twelve months in a year.
S14.730 the year sāla A year normally lasts 365 days.
S14.740 the winter saradī The winters are very cold here.
S14.750 the spring(2) bahāra, bāra The tree blooms in the spring.
S14.760 the summer garamī The summers are very hot here.
S14.770 the autumn/fall patajhaṛa In the autumn it gets cooler.
S14.780 the season ruta There are only two seasons here, the dry season and the wet season.

Chapter 15 - Sense perception
S15.210 to smell(1) khuśabu ānā̄ The flower smells pleasant.
S15.212 to sniff sughaṇā He opened the milk and sniffed it.
S15.220 to smell(2) sughaṇā I think I smell gas!
S15.250 fragrant khuśabūdāra --
S15.260 stinking badabū --
S15.310 to taste cakhaṇā This soup tastes very good.
S15.350 sweet miṭhā The ripe fruit is sweet.
S15.360 salty namakīna The soup is too salty, add some water.
S15.370 bitter kauṛā The medicine is bitter, take it with honey.
S15.380 sour khaṭā Sprinkle a little sugar over the strawberries if they are sour.
S15.390 brackish khārā brackish water
S15.410 to hear sunuāi denā, sunuāIa ānā I heard the sound of rain splashing on the window.
S15.420 to listen suṇanā Listen to the strange noise in the engine.
S15.440 the sound or noise avāza, roļā There were strange sounds coming from the next room.
S15.450 loud ucā The music is very loud.
S15.460 quiet śānta, khamōśa We have to be quiet so as not to wake the baby.
S15.510 to see dēkhanā, takāṇā I see a house in the distance.
S15.520 to look dēkhanā I'm looking but I can't see the house.
S15.550 to show dikhāṇā She showed me her house.
S15.560 to shine camakāṇā That lamp is shining in my eyes.
S15.570 bright ujālā I awoke from the bright sunlight.
S15.610 the colour/color raṅga My shirt is red, but I'd prefer a different colour.
S15.620 light(2) parakāśa, rośanī --
S15.630 dark nerā It is dark in the room because the lamp is broken.
S15.640 white safaida, chiṭṭā (snow)
S15.650 black kālā (charcoal)
S15.660 red lāla, ṣūhā (blood)
S15.670 blue nīlā (sky)
S15.680 green harā (leaves)
S15.690 yellow pīlā (yolk of chicken egg)
S15.710 to touch chūhṇā The child wanted to touch everything.
S15.712 to pinch cunḍi māranā Mum, the boy pinched me!
S15.720 to feel lagaṇā Feel (the quality of) this cloth!
S15.740 hard mazabūta, saḵẖata, ḍaḍā Diamond is the hardest substance known to man.
S15.750 soft mulā'ima, polā a soft pillow
S15.760 rough(1) rukhā, khurdarā Her hands were rough from hard work.
S15.770 smooth mulāyama smooth skin
S15.780 sharp tēza The knife is very sharp.
S15.790 blunt khar'havā, khunḍī This knife is blunt and does not cut well.
S15.810 heavy vazanadāra, bhārī, pārī The suitcase is too heavy for me to carry.
S15.820 light(1) halakā, holā You can carry this bag, it's fairly light.
S15.830 wet gilē, gilā He fell into the water, so his clothes are now wet.
S15.840 dry sukā The clothes were in the sun for a long time and are now dry.
S15.850 hot garama It's better to do the work now because later it'll be too hot.
S15.851 warm garama The sun is shining and there's no wind, so it's warm and you can go out without a coat.
S15.860 cold ṭhanḍa It's cold outside, so you need warm clothes.
S15.870 clean sutharā I washed my hands, so now they are clean.
S15.880 dirty mailā My hands are dirty from the work, so I need to wash them before the meal.
S15.890 wrinkled jhuṛī, vaṭa the wrinkled face of a 90-year old man

Chapter 16 - Emotions and values
S16.110 the soul or spirit ātamā, rūha --
S16.150 surprised or astonished hairāna --
S16.180 the good luck khuśakisamatī, subhāga --
S16.190 the bad luck badakisamatī --
S16.230 happy khuśa --
S16.250 to laugh hasnā --
S16.251 to smile musakarānā --
S16.260 to play khēḍaṇā --
S16.270 to love prēma karanā I love you.
S16.290 to kiss cumī karanā --
S16.300 to embrace lipaṭanā --
S16.310 the pain darada, pīṛa --
S16.320 the grief darada, dukha --
S16.330 the anxiety bēcainī --
S16.340 to regret or be sorry pachatāṇā I regret my mistake./I am sorrry about my mistake.
S16.350 the pity tarasa --
S16.370 to cry bilabilānā, rōṇā --
S16.380 the tear cīra, hanjū --
S16.390 to groan rarahnā --
S16.410 to hate nafarata karanā --
S16.420 the anger krōdha, ghusā --
S16.440 the envy or jealousy jalana, saṛanā --
S16.450 the shame lāja, śarama --
S16.480 proud garūra --
S16.510 to dare himmata karanā --
S16.520 brave sāhasī, niḍara --
S16.530 the fear ḍara --
S16.540 the danger ḵẖatarā, jōkhama --
S16.620 to want cāhaṇā, cāhaṇā --
S16.622 to choose cuṇanā --
S16.630 to hope umīda karanā, āsa lagānā --
S16.650 faithful vafādāra --
S16.660 true sacī, sahī --
S16.670 to lie(2) cūṭha bolanā --
S16.680 the deceit dhōkhā, tokhā --
S16.690 to forgive māfī karanā --
S16.710 good achā, caṅgā --
S16.720 bad ḵẖarāba, burā, paiṛā --
S16.730 right(2) sahī --
S16.740 wrong ġalata --
S16.760 the fault dōśa, galatī It's your fault we missed the bus!
S16.770 the mistake ġalatī --
S16.780 the blame dōśa --
S16.790 the praise praśasā, tarīfa --
S16.810 beautiful ḵẖubasūrata, soṇā --
S16.820 ugly badasūrata --
S16.830 greedy lōbhī, lālacī --
S16.840 clever calāka, huśiyāra --

Chapter 17 - Cognition
S17.110 the mind dimāga I don't know what's going on in her mind.
S17.130 to think(1) socanā You should think first before speaking.
S17.140 to think(2) sōcanā I think that this is not right.
S17.150 to believe manaṇā You shouldn't believe everything you read.
S17.160 to understand samajhaṇā I do not understand why they left us so early.
S17.170 to know jāṇanā They know that we are coming today.
S17.171 to guess bhāmpaṇā, bujṇā Guess how much money I have.
S17.172 to imitate -- --
S17.180 to seem lagaṇā The house seems to be empty.
S17.190 the idea khiyāla, vicāra --
S17.210 wise akalamada --
S17.220 stupid mūrakha --
S17.230 mad bāvarā, paghala --
S17.240 to learn sikhaṇā Where did you learn to cook so well?
S17.242 to study paṛhanā I have to study for my test.
S17.250 to teach paṛhānā --
S17.260 the pupil śagirada, vidiyārathī There are 10 pupils in the class, aged 6-7.
S17.270 the teacher gurū --
S17.280 the school pāṭhaśālā, skūla The children go to school every morning.
S17.310 to remember simaranā, yāda karaṇā Do you remember the name of your first teacher?
S17.320 to forget bhulaṇā, pulanā --
S17.340 clear sāfa a clear explanation
S17.350 obscure dundhalā, tundalā an obscure reason
S17.360 secret gupata, rāza --
S17.370 certain niśacita, pakā It is certain that the theft occurred during the night.
S17.380 to explain samajhāṇā --
S17.410 the intention makasada, irādā It was not his intention to wake the baby up.
S17.420 the cause āśakā, vajā What was the cause of the accident?
S17.430 the doubt śaka --
S17.440 to suspect śaka karanā The police suspected that he was a drug dealer.
S17.441 to betray tokā karana, dhoka karana --
S17.450 the need or necessity jarūrata --
S17.460 easy asāna --
S17.470 difficult kaṭhana, muśakila, okhā --
S17.480 to try azamānā --
S17.490 the manner tarīkā, rīta --
S17.510 and aura --
S17.520 because kyūnki --
S17.530 if agara --
S17.540 or yā, athavā --
S17.550 yes ṭhīka --
S17.560 no nā, nahī --
S17.610 how? kivēṁ --
S17.620 how many? kinne --
S17.630 how much? kinne --
S17.640 what? kyā, kī What is that thing on the table?
S17.650 when? jadūna --
S17.660 where? jithē, kithē --
S17.670 which? kihaṛā, keṛā --
S17.680 who? kina, koṇa --
S17.690 why? kyūna --

Chapter 18 - Speech and language
S18.110 the voice āvāza --
S18.120 to sing gā'uṇā, gāṇā --
S18.130 to shout ckīhanā Be careful, he shouted, "a lion!"
S18.150 to whisper -- --
S18.160 to mumble budabudānā The little boy mumbled something about wanting to go to the toilet.
S18.170 to whistle sīṭī māranā --
S18.180 to shriek cīkhaṇā --
S18.190 to howl cīkh māranā --
S18.210 to speak or talk kahiṇā --
S18.211 to stutter or stammer hakalānā --
S18.220 to say bōlanā She said she'd be late.
S18.221 to tell batānā, dasnā Our grandmother told us a story.
S18.222 the speech bhāśaṇa, takarīra In his speech, the chief thanked the guests.
S18.230 to be silent cupa honā --
S18.240 the language bhāśā, zubānā, bolī --
S18.260 the word laphaza --
S18.280 the name nāma What's your name?
S18.310 to ask(1) puchaṇā Where is your mother?, he asked.
S18.320 to answer utara denā, javaba deṇā I asked him where his mother was, but he didn't answer.
S18.330 to admit kabūlaṇā, maṇanā The suspect admitted he stole the car.
S18.340 to deny mukaranā She denied she was the thief.
S18.350 to ask(2) puchaṇā She asked for a glass of water.
S18.360 to promise vādā karanā --
S18.370 to refuse ṭhukarāṇā --
S18.380 to forbid ṭhākaṇā --
S18.390 to scold tarāṇā --
S18.410 to call(1) bulāuṇā The king called his ministers for a meeting.
S18.420 to call(2) bulāṇā The parents decided to call their son David.
S18.430 to announce elānā karaṇā, ghośana karaṇā --
S18.440 to threaten dabakānā, tamkaṇa --
S18.450 to boast -- --
S18.510 to write likhaṇā --
S18.520 to read paṛhanā --
S18.560 the paper kāgaza She took a piece of paper and wrote down her name.
S18.570 the pen kalama You must use a pen, not a pencil.
S18.610 the book pusataka, kitāba --
S18.670 the poet kavī, śāyara --
S18.710 the flute bānsarī He plays the flute and she plays the violin.
S18.720 the drum ḍhōla Don't beat the drum so hard, it's too loud.
S18.730 the horn or trumpet sigā, vājā --
S18.740 the rattle khaṛakaṇā --

Chapter 19 - Social and political relations
S19.110 the country dēśa, mulaka He has traveled to Japan, China, India, and many other countries.
S19.120 the native country dēśa, mulaka After the civil war ended, the refugees were able to return to their native country.
S19.150 the town nagara Farmers come into town to sell their produce.
S19.160 the village gā'uṁ, pinḍa The farmers' fields are near their village.
S19.170 the boundary sīmā, hada The province boundary is also the border between the two countries.
S19.210 the people lōkā, janatā The president is unpopular, but the people adore his daughter.
S19.230 the clan nasala, puśta The entire clan lives in one large house.
S19.240 the chieftain saradāra --
S19.250 the walking stick sōṭī --
S19.310 to rule or govern rāja karanā The president ruled the country for 25 years.
S19.320 the king mahārājā King David
S19.330 the queen mahārāṇī Queen Elizabeth
S19.360 the noble bhalī Nobles are exempt from paying taxes.
S19.370 the citizen nāgarika a citizen of Germany
S19.410 the master mālaka --
S19.420 the slave gulāma --
S19.430 the servant naukara --
S19.440 the freeman -- His mother was a slave, but his father was a freeman.
S19.450 to command or order pharamāna The officer commanded them to line up against the wall.
S19.460 to obey manaṇā Soldiers are expected to obey their superiors.
S19.470 to permit manazūrī I am afraid I cannot permit my daughter to marry you.
S19.510 the friend dōsata, mitara, yāra --
S19.520 the enemy śatarū, duśamaṇa --
S19.540 the neighbour guvānḍhī It's hard to sleep because the neighbors are noisy.
S19.550 the stranger parāyā She's not afraid of strangers.
S19.560 the guest atithī, peroṇā --
S19.570 the host mēzabāna The host offered his guests some wine.
S19.580 to help sahāyata karana, madada karana --
S19.590 to prevent rōkaṇā The police prevented the demonstrators from entering the building.
S19.610 the custom tarīkā, rasama, ravāja --
S19.620 the quarrel takarāra, cagaṛā We have a quarrel with the neighbors over their noise.
S19.630 the plot sāzaśa There was a plot to kill the queen.
S19.650 to meet milaṇā We agreed to meet in front of the theatre.
S19.720 the prostitute vēsavā, gaśatī --

Chapter 20 - Warfare and hunting
S20.110 to fight laṛanā The two tribes have been fighting for weeks.
S20.130 the war or battle yudha, jaṅga, laṛāī --
S20.140 the peace sakūna, śāntī, amana --
S20.150 the army laśakara, sainā, phoja The Roman army conquered Jerusalem.
S20.170 the soldier sipāhī, phaujī --
S20.210 the weapons hathyāra --
S20.220 the club lāṭhī --
S20.222 the battle-axe -- --
S20.230 the sling gulēla --
S20.240 the bow dhanuśa, kamāna --
S20.250 the arrow tīra --
S20.260 the spear bhālā --
S20.270 the sword talavāra --
S20.280 the gun bandūka She shot the thief with a gun.
S20.310 the armour ṭāla The knight wore a shining armor.
S20.330 the helmet ṭōpa, ṭōpī Put on your helmet when you ride a motorcycle.
S20.340 the shield ḍhāla He held up his shield to protect his head from the attack.
S20.350 the fortress kilā --
S20.360 the tower mināra From the tower you can see the entire town.
S20.410 the victory safalatā, kāmayābī, jīta --
S20.420 the defeat nākāmī, hāra --
S20.430 the attack halā, hamalā --
S20.440 to defend bacāṇā He defended himself but the robber took his wallet.
S20.450 to retreat dabakanā, haṭanā --
S20.460 to surrender samarapaṇa karanā --
S20.470 the captive or prisoner kaidī --
S20.471 the guard pahirēdāra I wanted to go in but the guard wouldn't let me.
S20.480 the booty luṭa --
S20.490 the ambush thaṛhā --
S20.510 the fisherman machērā --
S20.520 the fishhook kunḍī --
S20.530 the fishing line -- --
S20.540 the fishnet -- --
S20.550 the fish trap -- --
S20.560 the bait dāṇā Worms are used as bait.
S20.610 to hunt śikārā khēḍaṇā --
S20.620 to shoot pugaranā She shot the intruder with her gun.
S20.630 to miss ukanā, cūkanā He shot at the bird but missed it.
S20.640 the trap kuṛakī The hunter lay a trap for the bear.
S20.650 to trap phasāṇā The hunter trapped a fox.

Chapter 21 - Law
S21.110 the law kanūna There ought to be a law against cutting down trees.
S21.150 the court adālata, kacerī --
S21.160 to adjudicate -- --
S21.170 the judgment phaisalā --
S21.180 the judge ni'āṅkāra --
S21.210 the plaintiff -- --
S21.220 the defendant -- --
S21.230 the witness gavāha --
S21.240 to swear kasama khāṇā, kasama denā I swear to tell the truth.
S21.250 the oath kasama --
S21.310 to accuse ilzaam lāṇā, dōsa deṇā She accused him of stealing her purse.
S21.320 to condemn -- The judge condemned the defendant and sentenced him to two years in prison.
S21.330 to convict sazā denā He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
S21.340 to acquit chaḍaṇā The defendant was acquitted of all charges.
S21.350 guilty dōśī, mujrima The judge found the defendant guilty.
S21.360 innocent niradōśa, bēkasūra, masūma He was punished even though he was innocent.
S21.370 the penalty or punishment juramānā, sazā --
S21.380 the fine harajānā I had to pay a fine of $100 for speeding.
S21.390 the prison kaidaḵẖānā --
S21.420 the murder khūna, kattala Murder is punished very severely.
S21.430 the adultery harāmakārī --
S21.440 the rape balātakāra, jyātī --
S21.460 the arson -- --
S21.470 the perjury -- --
S21.510 to steal curāuṇā --
S21.520 the thief cōra --

Chapter 22 - Religion and belief
S22.110 the religion mazahaba --
S22.120 the god -- --
S22.130 the temple gurdvārā --
S22.140 the altar bēdī --
S22.150 the sacrifice kurbānī --
S22.160 to worship pūjā karaṇā --
S22.170 to pray pūjā karaṇā The farmers prayed for rain.
S22.180 the priest mulāṁ, sūfī --
S22.190 holy pavitara, pāka --
S22.220 to preach -- --
S22.230 to bless -- --
S22.240 to curse phiṭakāranā --
S22.260 to fast rojā rakhanā, upavāsa karana --
S22.310 the heaven savaraga, jannata --
S22.320 the hell naraka, jannama --
S22.350 the demon dānava, śaitāna --
S22.370 the idol mūratī, butta --
S22.420 the magic jādū, jāddū --
S22.430 the sorcerer or witch cuṛēla --
S22.440 the fairy or elf parī --
S22.450 the ghost bhūta --
S22.470 the omen naśubha --