SIL classification:

Dravidian > Southern > Tamil-Kannada > Tamil-Kodagu > Tamil-Malyalam > Tamil

ISO 639-3 code:


WALS classification:

Family: Dravidian > Genus: Southern Dravidian

WALS coordinates:

11° N, 78° 30′ E


Anju Saxena

Data entry personnel:

Mohamed Hashim


Creative Commons license
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Chapter 1 - The physical world
S01.100 the world ulakam -- The Amazon is the longest river in the world.
S01.210 the land nilam 'the hard surface of the earth, when compared to the area covered by sea' The captain sighted land in the distance.
S01.212 the soil maṇ 'the substance that plants naturally grow in' The soil is pretty good in this area.
S01.213 the dust tūci 'dry powder consisting of extremely small bits of matter, found outside or inside buildings' The house had not been cleaned and there was dust on the furniture.
S01.214 the mud maṇ 'wet earth that has become soft and sticky' His shoes were covered with mud.
S01.215 the sand maṇal -- There is sand on this part of the beach.
S01.220 the mountain or hill malai -- --
S01.222 the cliff or precipice ceṅkuttuppāṟai 'a high rock with a very steep side (often near the sea)' --
S01.230 the plain veṟṟu 'expanse of level ground, open country' --
S01.240 the valley paḷḷattākku -- The valley was surrounded by high mountains.
S01.250 the island tīvu -- Sicily is a Mediterranean island.
S01.260 the mainland kaṇṭam 'the main area of land that forms a country, as compared to islands near it' --
S01.270 the shore karai 'the land along the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean or a lake' --
S01.280 the cave kukai -- The hunter lit a torch and entered the cave.
S01.310 the water taṇṇīr 'drinking water' The inhabitants get their water from the river.
S01.320 the sea kaṭal -- The ship is sailing in the sea.
S01.322 calm amaitiyāṉa 'smooth or having only gentle waves' a calm sea
S01.323 rough(2) karaṭumūraṭāṉa 'with large waves' a rough sea
S01.324 the foam nurai -- Foam formed on the polluted river.
S01.329 the ocean peruṅkaṭal 'any of the world's major bodies of salt water'; generally larger than 'sea' The Pacific Ocean is larger than the Atlantic Ocean.
S01.330 the lake ēri -- This lake's water is safe for drinking.
S01.340 the bay virikuṭā 'an area of the sea that curves inwards towards the land' --
S01.341 the lagoon kaṭaṟkaraikkāyal 'a body of sea water partly or completely separated from the sea by sand, rock etc., generally smaller than a bay' --
S01.342 the reef pavaḷappāṟai 'a line mass of sharp rocks, often made of coral, near the surface of the sea' The ship was wrecked on a reef.
S01.343 the cape tīpakṟpam 'a large piece of land surrounded on three sides by the sea' --
S01.350 the wave alai -- The tallest waves are found in the Pacific Ocean.
S01.352 the tide alai vaṟṟu 'the regular rising and lowering of the level of the sea' --
S01.353 the low tide -- During low tide the rock is exposed.
S01.354 the high tide -- The rock is not visible during high tide.
S01.360 the river or stream āṟu -- --
S01.362 the whirlpool nīrccuḻal 'a powerful current of water that spins around and can pull things down into it' --
S01.370 the spring or well kiṇaṟu 'natural (spring) or artificial (well) source of water' --
S01.380 the swamp catuppunilam -- Be careful, there are crocodiles in the swamp.
S01.390 the waterfall nīr vīḻcci -- The waterfall runs dry in the summer.
S01.410 the woods or forest kāṭu -- There are many wild animals in the forest.
S01.430 the wood marakkaṭṭai 'material that people get from trees' The table is made of wood.
S01.440 the stone or rock kal -- --
S01.450 the earthquake nilanaṭukkam -- The house was destroyed by an earthquake.
S01.510 the sky vāṉam -- There were white clouds in the blue sky.
S01.520 the sun cūriyaṉ -- The sun rises in the east.
S01.530 the moon cantiraṉ -- The moon shone brightly in the clear night sky.
S01.540 the star naṭcattiram -- The stars shone brightly in the clear night sky.
S01.550 the lightning miṉṉal -- I was momentarily blinded by the lightening.
S01.560 the thunder iṭi -- The thunder was deafening.
S01.570 the bolt of lightning 'a flash of lightning and a noise of thunder together, which hits something' --
S01.580 the storm puyal -- It's more than just rain-it's a real storm!
S01.590 the rainbow vāṉavil -- After the storm, a rainbow appeared in the sky.
S01.610 the light oḷi -- The fire gave a bright light.
S01.620 the darkness iruḷ -- After the sunset, darkness quickly fell.
S01.630 the shade or shadow niḻal -- --
S01.640 the dew paṉi -- The trees were wet from the morning dew.
S01.710 the air kāṟṟu -- The air is cool and fresh here in the mountains.
S01.720 the wind -- The wind blew so hard it knocked down the tree.
S01.730 the cloud mēkam -- There were white clouds in the blue sky.
S01.740 the fog mūṭupaṉi -- The fog is so thick I can't see the road.
S01.750 the rain maḻai -- After the rain, the sun appeared again.
S01.760 the snow paṉi -- Snow fell all night and covered the city.
S01.770 the ice paṉikkaṭṭi -- A layer of ice formed over the lake.
S01.780 the weather vāṉilai -- I hope that tomorrow the weather will be nicer than today.
S01.810 the fire neruppu 'a fire lit deliberately for heating or cooking' The fire is brightly burning in the fireplace.
S01.820 the flame tīkkoḻuntu -- The flames were so high they reached the helicopter.
S01.830 the smoke pukai -- Heavy smoke billowed from the burning house.
S01.840 the ash cāmpal -- He let the cigarette ash fall on the floor.
S01.841 the embers 'pieces of wood or coal in a fire that are no longer burning but are still red and very hot' --
S01.851 to burn(1) erittal 'partially or fully destroy with fire' She burnt all her ex-boyfriend's old letters.
S01.852 to burn(2) erikiṟatu 'be on fire, be consumed by fire' Our house is burning! Call the fire fighters!
S01.860 to light tīmūṭṭuvatu 'make something burn' She lit a match.
S01.861 to extinguish aṇaittal -- The fire fighters extinguished the fire.
S01.870 the match tīkkucci 'a small wooden stick used to light a fire' --
S01.880 the firewood viṟaku -- The boys collected firewood and built a bonfire.
S01.890 the charcoal karittuṇṭu -- This fireplace is lit by charcoal, not wood.

Chapter 2 - Kinship
S02.100 the person āḷ 'human being' This table can be lifted by one person.
S02.210 the man maṉitaṉ (vs. woman) The man had a long beard.
S02.220 the woman peṇ -- The woman wore a pretty dress.
S02.230 male(1) āṇ (of humans, cf. 3.12) I have ten male and twelve female students.
S02.240 female(1) peṇ (of humans, cf. 3.13) I have ten male and twelve female students.
S02.250 the boy paiyaṉ -- One day this boy will grow to be a man.
S02.251 the young man iḷaiñaṉ -- The young man was not married.
S02.260 the girl ciṟumi -- One day this girl will grow to be a woman.
S02.261 the young woman mātu -- The young woman was not married.
S02.270 the child(1) ciṟār 'young human' (not kinship term) (cf. 2.43) Many children were playing in the water.
S02.280 the baby kaikkuḻantai 'very young human that cannot walk yet' She's still a baby and can only have milk.
S02.310 the husband kaṇavaṉ -- She married her husband last year.
S02.320 the wife maṉaivi -- He married his wife last year.
S02.330 to marry maṇamuṭittal -- She married a man 10 years her junior.
S02.340 the wedding kalyāṇam -- When we were married, a thousand people came to the wedding.
S02.341 the divorce vivākarattu -- After the divorce, he married another woman.
S02.350 the father appā -- My father came home late last night.
S02.360 the mother tāy -- My mother came home late last night.
S02.370 the parents peṟṟōr -- My parents live in the village.
S02.380 the married man tirumaṇamāṉavar -- As a married man he had more privileges.
S02.390 the married woman cumaṅkali -- As a married woman she had more privileges.
S02.410 the son makaṉ -- I have one son and one daughter.
S02.420 the daughter makaḷ -- I have one son and one daughter.
S02.430 the child(2) kuḻantai 'immediate descendant, son or daughter' (kinship term) (cf. 2.27) I have two children, a son and a daughter.
S02.440 the brother cakōtaraṉ -- I have two brothers, one younger and one older than me.
S02.444 the older brother aṇṇaṉ -- My older brother is married, but my younger brother still lives at home.
S02.445 the younger brother tampi -- My older brother is married, but my younger brother still lives at home.
S02.450 the sister cakōtari -- I have two sisters, one younger and one older than me.
S02.454 the older sister akkāḷ -- My older sister is married, but my younger sister still lives at home.
S02.455 the younger sister taṅkai -- My older sister is married, but my younger sister still lives at home.
S02.456 the sibling -- I have two siblings, one brother and one sister.
S02.458 the twins iraṭṭai -- --
S02.460 the grandfather tāttā -- My grandfather is 80 years old.
S02.461 the old man mūtiyavar -- That old man looks like my grandfather.
S02.470 the grandmother pāṭṭi -- My grandmother is 70 years old.
S02.471 the old woman kiḻavi -- That old woman looks like my grandmother.
S02.480 the grandson pēraṉ -- My grandson is 5 years older than my granddaughter.
S02.490 the granddaughter pētti -- My grandson is 5 years older than my granddaughter.
S02.510 the uncle māmā -- I have two uncles, one on my father's side and one on my mother's side.
S02.511 the mother's brother -- --
S02.512 the father's brother -- --
S02.520 the aunt attai -- --
S02.521 the mother's sister -- --
S02.522 the father's sister -- --
S02.530 the nephew marumakaṉ 'sibling's son' --
S02.540 the niece marumakaḷ 'sibling's daughter' --
S02.550 the cousin -- --
S02.560 the ancestors mūtātaiyar -- --
S02.570 the descendants -- --
S02.610 the father-in-law (of a man) māmaṉār -- --
S02.611 the father-in-law (of a woman) -- --
S02.620 the mother-in-law (of a man) māmiyār -- --
S02.621 the mother-in-law (of a woman) -- --
S02.630 the son-in-law (of a man) marumakaṉ -- --
S02.631 the son-in-law (of a woman) -- --
S02.640 the daughter-in-law (of a man) marumakaḷ -- --
S02.641 the daughter-in-law (of a woman) -- --
S02.710 the stepfather -- --
S02.720 the stepmother māṟṟāntāy -- --
S02.730 the stepson māṟṟurimai makaṉ -- --
S02.740 the stepdaughter māṟṟurimai makaḷ -- --
S02.750 the orphan aṉātai -- --
S02.760 the widow vitavai -- --
S02.770 the widower taputāraṉ -- --
S02.810 the relatives uṟaviṉarakaḷ -- --
S02.820 the family kuṭumpam 'group of closely related relatives, consisting minimally of parents and children' --
S02.910 I nāṉ -- --
S02.920 you (singular) -- --
S02.930 he/she/it avar (third person singular pronoun, regardless of gender/sex) --
S02.940 we nām -- --
S02.941 we (inclusive) nāṅkaḷ -- --
S02.942 we (exclusive) avarkaḷ -- --
S02.950 you (plural) nīṅkaḷ -- --
S02.960 they avarkaḷ -- --

Chapter 3 - Animals
S03.110 the animal vilaṅku 'living creature that can move (including or excluding humans)' On the small island they found rabbits, foxes, snakes, mice and many other animals.
S03.120 male(2) āṇ (of animals) cf. 2.23 Only male lions have manes.
S03.130 female(2) peṇ (of animals) cf. 2.24 Only female monkeys look after their offspring.
S03.150 the livestock vaḷarppu pirāṇikaḷ 'domestic mammals kept for service or for useful products (cows, horses, donkeys, sheep, goats, pigs, reindeer, camels, etc.)' --
S03.160 the pasture pulveḷi 'land or field that is covered with grass and is used for livestock to feed on' --
S03.180 the herdsman mantaikkuriyavar 'a man who looks after a herd of animals' --
S03.190 the stable or stall toḻuvam 'building where domestic animals (any kind, not just horses) are kept' --
S03.200 the cattle kālnaṭai '(collection of) domestic bovine animals' --
S03.210 the bull kāḷai māṭu 'male bovine (not castrated)' --
S03.220 the ox erutu 'a castrated bull, often used for working on farms' --
S03.230 the cow māṭu 'female bovine' --
S03.240 the calf pacukkaṉṟu 'young of a cow' --
S03.250 the sheep cemmaṟi āṭu -- The farmers raised sheep for wool and milk.
S03.260 the ram cemmaṟik kaṭā 'male sheep' --
S03.280 the ewe 'female sheep' --
S03.290 the lamb cemmaṟiyāṭṭukkuṭṭi 'young of a sheep' --
S03.320 the boar āṇ paṉṟi -- The hunter shot the boar in the forest.
S03.340 the sow peṇ paṉṟi 'female pig' --
S03.350 the pig paṉṟi -- There are three pigs in the sty.
S03.360 the goat veḷḷiṭu '(female or generic) goat' --
S03.370 the he-goat 'male goat' --
S03.380 the kid āṭṭukkuṭṭi 'young of a goat' --
S03.410 the horse kutirai -- The policeman mounted the horse and rode away.
S03.420 the stallion āṇ kutirai 'male horse' --
S03.440 the mare peṇ kutirai 'female horse' --
S03.450 the foal or colt kutirai kuṭṭi 'the young of horses' --
S03.460 the donkey kaḻutai -- That donkey is almost as large as a horse.
S03.470 the mule kōvēṟukaḻutai 'an animal that has a donkey and a horse as parents' --
S03.500 the fowl paṟavai 'a bird that is kept for its meat and eggs' --
S03.520 the cock/rooster cēval -- The farmer owns ten hens but only two roosters.
S03.540 the hen kōḻi -- The farmer owns ten hens but only two roosters.
S03.550 the chicken kōḻikkaṟi (Fill in only if there is a general term for 'rooster or hen'.) --
S03.560 the goose peṇ vāttu 'domesticated goose' --
S03.570 the duck vāttu 'domesticated duck' --
S03.580 the nest kūṭu -- Many birds build nests in trees.
S03.581 the bird paṟavai -- --
S03.582 the seagull kaṭalpaṟavai -- --
S03.583 the heron nārai -- --
S03.584 the eagle kaḻuku -- --
S03.585 the hawk paruntu -- --
S03.586 the vulture rājāḷi -- --
S03.591 the bat vauvāl -- --
S03.592 the parrot kiḷi -- --
S03.593 the crow kākam -- --
S03.594 the dove puṟā -- --
S03.596 the owl āntai -- --
S03.610 the dog nāy -- --
S03.614 the rabbit mūyal -- --
S03.620 the cat pūṉai -- --
S03.622 the opossum -- --
S03.630 the mouse or rat cuṇṭeli -- --
S03.650 the fish mīṉ -- --
S03.652 the fin mīṉ iṟaku 'one of the thin body parts that a fish uses to swim' --
S03.653 the scale cetiḷ 'one of the small flat pieces of skin that cover the bodies of fish' --
S03.654 the gill cevuḷ -- --
S03.655 the shell cippi -- --
S03.661 the shark cuṟāmīṉ -- --
S03.662 the porpoise or dolphin -- --
S03.663 the whale timiṅkilam -- --
S03.664 the stingray tirukkaimīṉ -- --
S03.665 the freshwater eel vilāṅkumīṉ -- --
S03.710 the wolf ōnāy -- --
S03.720 the lion ciṅkam -- --
S03.730 the bear karaṭi -- --
S03.740 the fox nari -- --
S03.750 the deer māṉ -- --
S03.760 the monkey kuraṅku -- --
S03.770 the elephant yāṉai -- --
S03.780 the camel oṭṭakam -- --
S03.810 the insect pūcci -- --
S03.811 the head louse pēṉ -- --
S03.812 the nit 'an egg of a louse that is sometimes found in people's hair' --
S03.813 the flea uṇṇi -- --
S03.814 the centipede nūṟṟukkāli -- --
S03.815 the scorpion tēḷ -- --
S03.816 the cockroach karappāṉ pūcci -- --
S03.817 the ant eṟumpu -- --
S03.818 the spider cilanti -- --
S03.819 the spider web oṟṟaṭai -- --
S03.820 the bee tēṉī -- --
S03.821 the beeswax tēṉmeḻuku -- --
S03.822 the beehive tēṉkūṭu -- --
S03.823 the wasp kuḷavi -- --
S03.830 the fly ī -- --
S03.831 the sandfly or midge or gnat -- --
S03.832 the mosquito kocu -- --
S03.840 the worm puḻu -- --
S03.850 the snake pāmpu -- --
S03.910 the firefly miṉmiṉi pūcci -- --
S03.920 the butterfly vaṇṇattuppūcci -- --
S03.930 the grasshopper veṭṭukkiḷi -- --
S03.940 the snail nattai -- --
S03.950 the frog tavaḷai -- --
S03.960 the lizard palli -- --
S03.970 the crocodile or alligator mūtalai -- --
S03.980 the turtle āmai -- --

Chapter 4 - The body
S04.110 the body uṭal 'the body of a live human' --
S04.120 the skin or hide tōl (skin: of a human; hide: of an animal) --
S04.130 the flesh catai -- --
S04.140 the hair mayir 'hair on a person's head' --
S04.142 the beard tāṭi -- --
S04.144 the body hair -- --
S04.145 the pubic hair poccu mayir -- --
S04.146 the dandruff poṭuku -- --
S04.150 the blood irattam -- --
S04.151 the vein or artery kurutikkuḻāy -- --
S04.160 the bone elumpu -- --
S04.162 the rib vilā elumpu -- --
S04.170 the horn kompu (e.g. of a cow) --
S04.180 the tail vāl -- --
S04.190 the back mūtuku 'the back of a human body' --
S04.191 the spine mūtukelumpu -- --
S04.200 the head talai -- --
S04.201 the temples 'the two fairly flat areas on each side of people's forehead', or more generally 'the two sides of people's head' --
S04.202 the skull maṇṭai ōṭu -- --
S04.203 the brain mūḷai -- --
S04.204 the face mūkam -- --
S04.205 the forehead neṟṟi -- --
S04.207 the jaw tāṭai 'the lower part of people's face that moves when they eat' The boxer punched his opponent on the jaw.
S04.208 the cheek kaṉṉam -- --
S04.209 the chin mōvāy -- --
S04.210 the eye kaṇ -- --
S04.212 the eyebrow kaṇpuruvam -- --
S04.213 the eyelid kaṇimaikaḷ -- --
S04.214 the eyelash imaimayir -- --
S04.215 to blink kaṇ cimiṭṭal 'to shut and open one's eyes quickly' I blinked as I came out into the sunlight.
S04.220 the ear kātu -- --
S04.221 the earlobe veḷik kātu -- --
S04.222 the earwax kātukkurumpi -- --
S04.230 the nose mūkku -- --
S04.231 the nostril mūkkut tuvāram -- --
S04.232 the nasal mucus mūkkucaḷi -- --
S04.240 the mouth vāy -- --
S04.241 the beak alaku -- --
S04.250 the lip utaṭu -- --
S04.260 the tongue nākku -- --
S04.270 the tooth pal -- --
S04.271 the gums palniṟkum tacai -- --
S04.272 the molar tooth kaṭaivāyp pal -- --
S04.280 the neck kaḻuttu -- --
S04.281 the nape of the neck piṭari -- --
S04.290 the throat toṇṭai -- --
S04.300 the shoulder tōḷ -- --
S04.301 the shoulderblade tōḷpaṭṭai -- --
S04.302 the collarbone -- --
S04.310 the arm mēṟkai -- --
S04.312 the armpit akkuḷ -- --
S04.320 the elbow mūḻaṅkai -- --
S04.321 the wrist maṇikkaṭṭu -- --
S04.330 the hand kai -- --
S04.331 the palm of the hand uḷḷaṅkai -- --
S04.340 the finger viral -- --
S04.342 the thumb kaṭṭaiviral -- --
S04.344 the fingernail viral nakam -- --
S04.345 the claw kūrnakam 'the sharp curved nail on the toe of an animal or bird' The cat dug his claws into my leg.
S04.350 the leg kāl -- --
S04.351 the thigh toṭai 'the top part of the leg, between the knee and the hip' --
S04.352 the calf of the leg keṇṭaikkāl -- --
S04.360 the knee mūḻaṅkāl -- --
S04.370 the foot pātam -- --
S04.371 the ankle kaṇukkāl -- --
S04.372 the heel kutikāl -- --
S04.374 the footprint kālaṭit taṭam -- --
S04.380 the toe kālviral -- --
S04.392 the wing iṟakkai -- --
S04.393 the feather iṟaku -- --
S04.400 the chest mārpu -- --
S04.410 the breast mārpakam 'the breast of a woman' --
S04.412 the nipple or teat mūlaikkāmpu -- --
S04.420 the udder maṭi 'the part of a cow/female goat/... that hangs down between its back legs and that produces milk' --
S04.430 the navel toppuḷ -- --
S04.440 the heart itayam -- --
S04.441 the lung nuraiyīral -- --
S04.450 the liver kallīral -- --
S04.451 the kidney ciṟunīrakam -- --
S04.452 the spleen maṇṇīral -- --
S04.460 the stomach vayiṟu (internal organ, not 'belly') Her stomach could not digest the tough meat.
S04.461 the intestines or guts kuṭal -- --
S04.462 the waist iṭuppu -- --
S04.463 the hip iṭai -- --
S04.464 the buttocks cūttāmpaṭṭai 'the fleshy part of one's body that people sit on' --
S04.470 the womb karuppai -- --
S04.490 the testicles virai -- --
S04.492 the penis āṇ kuṟi -- --
S04.510 to breathe mūccuviṭutal -- --
S04.520 to yawn koṭṭāviyiṭutal -- --
S04.521 to hiccough vikkutal -- --
S04.530 to cough irumuvatu -- --
S04.540 to sneeze tummutal -- --
S04.550 to perspire meyppittukkāṭṭutal -- --
S04.560 to spit tupputal -- --
S04.570 to vomit vāntiyēṭuttal -- --
S04.580 to bite kaṭittal -- --
S04.590 to lick nakkutal -- --
S04.591 to dribble oḻukutal 'to let saliva flow out of one's mouth onto one's chin' Watch out, the baby is dribbling on your shirt!
S04.610 to sleep tūṅkutal -- --
S04.612 to snore kuṟaṭṭaiyiṭutal -- --
S04.620 to dream kaṉavu kaṇutal -- --
S04.630 to wake up kaṇviḻittal (intransitive) I wake up at seven every morning.
S04.640 to fart kucuviṭutal -- --
S04.650 to piss ciṟunīrkaḻittal -- --
S04.660 to shit malamkaḻittal -- --
S04.670 to have sex uṭaluṟavukoḷḷutal -- --
S04.680 to shiver naṭuṅkutal -- --
S04.690 to bathe kuḷittal (intransitive) She likes to bathe before going to bed.
S04.710 to beget īṉṟeṭuttal 'become the father of' --
S04.720 to be born -- --
S04.730 pregnant karpam -- --
S04.732 to conceive karuvuṟutal -- She conceived her first child while still in England.
S04.740 to be alive uyirōṭirutal -- I thought he was dead, but he's still alive.
S04.750 to die cāvutal -- --
S04.751 to drown mūḻkutal -- The dog fell into the river and drowned.
S04.760 to kill kollutal -- --
S04.770 the corpse piṇam 'body of a dead human' --
S04.780 to bury putaittal 'bury a dead person' --
S04.790 the grave iṭukāṭu -- --
S04.810 strong palamāṉa -- She's a strong woman and can lift 50 kilos.
S04.820 weak palakīṉamāṉa -- He's so weak that he cannot even lift 5 kilos.
S04.830 healthy ārōkkiyamāṉa -- --
S04.840 sick/ill nōyvāyppaṭutal -- --
S04.841 the fever kāyccal -- --
S04.842 the goitre/goiter 'a disease of the thyroid gland that makes one's neck very swollen' --
S04.843 the cold caḷi 'the common cold' He caught a cold after swimming in the lake at night.
S04.850 the wound or sore kāyam -- --
S04.852 the bruise cirāyvu -- --
S04.853 the swelling vīkkam -- --
S04.854 the itch arippu -- The itch was caused by an insect bite.
S04.855 the blister koppuḷam -- --
S04.856 the boil kaṭṭi 'a painful infected swelling under someone's skin' The boy's body is covered in boils.
S04.857 the pus cīḻ -- --
S04.858 the scar vaṭu -- --
S04.860 to cure kuṇamākku -- The treatment cured the patient's illness.
S04.870 the physician maruttuvar -- --
S04.880 the medicine maruntu 'drug, medication' --
S04.890 the poison viṣam -- --
S04.910 tired kaḷaippu -- --
S04.912 to rest ōyveṭuttal -- --
S04.920 lazy cōmpēṟi -- --
S04.930 bald vaḻukkai -- --
S04.940 lame noṇṭi -- --
S04.950 deaf ceviṭu -- --
S04.960 mute ūmai -- --
S04.970 blind kuruṭar -- --
S04.980 drunk kuṭimayakkattiluḷḷa 'intoxicated' They became drunk after drinking too much beer.
S04.990 naked nirvāṇamāṉa -- The child does not like to wear clothes, and goes around naked.

Chapter 5 - Food and drink
S05.110 to eat cāppiṭutal (transitive) The child has eaten the fruit.
S05.120 the food uṇavu -- --
S05.121 cooked camaitta (contrasting with 'raw') Cooked bananas taste even better than raw bananas.
S05.122 raw paccaiyāṉa -- Cooked bananas taste even better than raw bananas.
S05.123 ripe paḻutta -- Unripe bananas have a green colour, whereas ripe bananas are yellow.
S05.124 unripe paḻukkāta -- Unripe bananas have a green colour, whereas ripe bananas are yellow.
S05.125 rotten aḻukiya (about fruit) a rotten apple or mango
S05.130 to drink parukutal -- drink water
S05.140 to be hungry pacittiruttal -- --
S05.141 the famine pañcam -- --
S05.150 to be thirsty tākam -- --
S05.160 to suck uṟiñcuvatu (transitive) The baby is sucking milk.
S05.180 to chew mellulutal -- This meat is so tough I can hardly chew it!
S05.181 to swallow viḻuṅkutal -- You need to chew this meat well before you can swallow it.
S05.190 to choke mūccaṭaittal 'prevent from breathing (not necessarily leading to death)' The smoke was choking the firefighters./The assailant choked his victim.
S05.210 to cook camaittal (transitive) She was cooking a soup for her mother.
S05.220 to boil kotikkavaittal (intransitive) The water is boiling.
S05.230 to roast or fry porittal -- --
S05.240 to bake cuṭu 'in an oven, using dry heat' (transitive) We are baking some bread.
S05.250 the oven aṭuppu -- --
S05.260 the pot pāṉai 'a container used for cooking which is round, deep, and usually made of metal' He is cooking soup for the whole family in a big pot.
S05.270 the kettle keṇṭi 'a metal container with a lid, a handle, and a spout (= for pouring), used to boil water' The water is boiling in the kettle.
S05.280 the pan caṭṭi 'a round and relatively flat metal container used for cooking, with one long handle' --
S05.310 the dish taṭṭu 'a relatively flat, round vessel from which food is served on the table' --
S05.320 the plate uṇavuttaṭṭu 'a flat and usually round vessel that you eat from' --
S05.330 the bowl kiṇṇam 'a concave container that is open at the top, usually used to hold food' --
S05.340 the jug/pitcher kūcā 'a container for holding and pouring liquids with a handle and a spout' --
S05.350 the cup kōppai 'a drinking vessel not made of glass' --
S05.360 the saucer ēntutaṭṭu 'a small dish for placing a cup' --
S05.370 the spoon karaṇṭi -- He ate the soup with a spoon.
S05.380 the knife(1) katti 'knife for eating' (as opposed to knife used for preparing food) --
S05.390 the fork mūḷ karaṇṭi 'tool used for picking up and eating food, with a handle and three or four points' --
S05.391 the tongs iṭukki 'a tool that consists of two movable bars joined at one end, used to pick up an object' --
S05.410 the meal uṇavu 'an occasion when one eats food, for example breakfast or lunch' Dinner is the main meal of the day for most people.
S05.420 the breakfast kālaiyuṇṭi 'the meal one has in the morning' --
S05.430 the lunch matiya uṇavu 'a meal eaten in the middle of the day' --
S05.440 the dinner iravu uṇavu 'the main meal of the day, eaten in the middle of the day or in the evening' --
S05.450 the supper mālai uṇavu 'the last meal of the evening' --
S05.460 to peel urittal 'remove the skin from food or vegetables' This knife is good for peeling potatoes.
S05.470 to sieve or to strain callaṭaiyiṭuvatu 'separate solid things from a liquid by pouring the mixture through a sieve (= a container with very small holes in it)' She strained the coffee before serving it.
S05.480 to scrape curaṇṭutal 'remove something from a surface, using the edge of a knife, stick, etc.' Scrape the carrots and slice them thinly.
S05.490 to stir or to mix kalakkutal -- --
S05.510 the bread roṭṭi 'a common important food made from flour, water, and yeast' --
S05.530 the dough picainta māvu 'a mixture of flour and water ready to be baked into bread, pastry etc.' --
S05.540 to knead picaital 'press a dough many times with one's hands' Knead the dough for three minutes.
S05.550 the flour māvu -- --
S05.560 to crush or to grind aṟaittal 'press [grain] in order to break it into very small pieces or powder' --
S05.570 the mill ālai -- --
S05.580 the mortar(1) araivaikkal 'a hard bowl in which substances are crushed with a pestle' --
S05.590 the pestle ulakkai 'a short stick with a heavy round end, used for crushing things in a mortar' --
S05.610 the meat iṟaicci 'the flesh of animals or birds eaten as food' --
S05.630 the sausage mitavatakkal -- --
S05.640 the soup vaṭicāṟu -- Clear chicken soup can relieve the symptoms of the common cold.
S05.650 the vegetables kāykaṟikaḷ 'an edible plant grown in gardens that is not sweet' --
S05.660 the bean avarai -- --
S05.700 the potato uruḷaikkiḻaṅku -- --
S05.710 the fruit paḻam generic name for tree fruit covering apples, pears, mangos, oranges, etc. --
S05.712 the bunch kottu 'a group of flowers/fruit that are held together' --
S05.750 the fig nāval paḻam -- --
S05.760 the grape tirāṭcai -- --
S05.770 the nut koṭṭai -- --
S05.780 the olive caitūṇ -- --
S05.790 the oil eṇṇey 'a smooth, thick liquid made from plants or animals, used especially in cooking' --
S05.791 the grease or fat koḻuppu -- --
S05.810 the salt uppu -- --
S05.820 the pepper miḷaku 'black pepper, a table seasoning produced from the berries of the plant Piper nigrum' --
S05.821 the chili pepper cīmai miḷakāy 'the fruit of the plant Capsicum' --
S05.840 the honey tēṉ -- --
S05.850 the sugar cakkarai -- --
S05.860 the milk pāl -- --
S05.870 to milk kaṟattal -- --
S05.880 the cheese pālāṭaikkaṭṭi -- --
S05.890 the butter veṇṇey -- --
S05.900 the drink pāṉam 'any kind of beverage' --
S05.910 the mead pulveḷi -- --
S05.920 the wine tirāṭcai racam -- --
S05.930 the beer pīr -- --
S05.940 the fermented drink matupāṉam -- --
S05.970 the egg muṭṭai -- --
S05.971 the yolk mañcaḷ karu 'the yellow part in the centre of an egg' --

Chapter 6 - Clothing and grooming
S06.110 to put on pōṭutal (transitive) The child can already put on his clothes by himself.
S06.120 the clothing or clothes uṭaikaḷa -- --
S06.130 the tailor taiyalkārar -- --
S06.210 the cloth tuṇi 'woven fabric' --
S06.220 the wool kampaḷam -- --
S06.230 the linen nārttuṇi 'fabric woven of flax' --
S06.240 the cotton parutti -- --
S06.250 the silk paṭṭu -- --
S06.270 the felt kampaḷi -- --
S06.280 the fur meṉmayi -- --
S06.290 the leather vilaṅkut tōl -- --
S06.310 to spin tiri nūl 'to draw out and twist fiber into thread' --
S06.320 the spindle nārkkaṟṟai 'a stick used in spinning fiber into thread' --
S06.330 to weave necavu -- The village women weave cloth from cotton thread.
S06.340 the loom taṟi -- --
S06.350 to sew tai -- --
S06.360 the needle(1) ūci (for sewing) --
S06.370 the awl 'pointed tool for marking or piercing wood or leather' --
S06.380 the thread nūl -- --
S06.390 to dye cāyampucutal -- The weaver dyed the cloth bright red.
S06.410 the cloak -- --
S06.411 the poncho -- --
S06.420 the (woman's) dress 'garment worn by women over the torso extending to the legs' --
S06.430 the coat -- --
S06.440 the shirt caṭṭai -- --
S06.450 the collar kaḻuttup paṭṭai -- --
S06.460 the skirt pāvāṭai -- --
S06.461 the grass-skirt kuṭṭaip pāvāṭai -- --
S06.480 the trousers nīṭ kāṟcaṭṭai -- --
S06.490 the sock or stocking kāluṟai -- --
S06.510 the shoe kālaṇi -- --
S06.520 the boot jōṭu -- --
S06.540 the shoemaker -- --
S06.550 the hat or cap toppi -- --
S06.570 the belt iṭaivār -- --
S06.580 the glove kaiyuṟai -- --
S06.590 the veil mūkkāṭu -- During the wedding the bride wore a veil that hid her face.
S06.610 the pocket caṭṭaippai (in a garment) He put the money in his shirt pocket.
S06.620 the button pottāṉ -- --
S06.630 the pin kuṇṭūci -- The torn shirt was held together by pins.
S06.710 the ornament or adornment aṇikalaṉ -- Her hair was adorned with silver oranments.
S06.720 the jewel nakai -- --
S06.730 the ring mōtiram (for finger) --
S06.740 the bracelet vaḷaiyal -- She wore a solid gold bracelet.
S06.750 the necklace kaḻutmālai -- Her necklace was made of pearls and coral.
S06.760 the bead ciṟumaṇi -- --
S06.770 the earring tōṭu -- The pirate wore one earring.
S06.780 the headband or headdress -- --
S06.790 the tattoo paccaikkuṟi -- --
S06.810 the handkerchief or rag kaikkuṭṭai -- --
S06.820 the towel tuṇṭu -- --
S06.910 the comb cīppu -- --
S06.920 the brush -- He used the brush to thoroughly brush his hair.
S06.921 the plait/braid piṉṉal 'a length of hair that has been separated into three parts and then woven together' --
S06.930 the razor cavarak katti -- While he was shaving the razor cut his face.
S06.940 the ointment kaḷimpu -- --
S06.950 the soap cōppu -- A bar of soap was placed by the sink.
S06.960 the mirror cuvarkkaṇṇāṭi -- He looked at himself in the mirror that hung on the wall.

Chapter 7 - The house
S07.110 to live vāḻutal 'dwell, reside' A family of five lives in that large house.
S07.120 the house vīṭu -- --
S07.130 the hut kuṭicai -- --
S07.131 the garden-house tōṭṭa vīṭu -- --
S07.140 the tent kūṭāram -- --
S07.150 the yard or court mūṟṟam 'enclosed area atttached to a house, whether outside or an inner court' --
S07.160 the men's house -- --
S07.170 the cookhouse camaiyar kūṭam -- --
S07.180 the meeting house kūṭṭa maṉṟam -- --
S07.210 the room aṟai -- --
S07.220 the door or gate katavu -- --
S07.221 the doorpost = 'jamb, side post of a door' --
S07.230 the lock pūṭṭu -- --
S07.231 the latch or door-bolt tāḻppāḷ -- --
S07.240 the key cāvi -- --
S07.250 the window ஜṉṉal -- --
S07.260 the floor tarai -- --
S07.270 the wall cuvar -- The walls of our house are very thick.
S07.310 the fireplace pukaippōkki -- --
S07.320 the stove aṭuppu -- She put the kettle on the stove and lit the fire.
S07.330 the chimney pukaipōkki -- --
S07.370 the ladder ēṇi -- --
S07.420 the bed kaṭṭil -- --
S07.421 the pillow talaiyaṉai -- --
S07.422 the blanket pōrvai -- --
S07.430 the chair nāṟkāli -- --
S07.440 the table mēcai -- --
S07.450 the lamp or torch viḷakku -- --
S07.460 the candle meḻukuvartti -- --
S07.470 the shelf alamāri 'a long flat narrow board fixed onto a wall or in a frame or cupboard, used for putting things on or stroing things on' Put it back on the top shelf.
S07.480 the trough toṭṭi 'a long narrow open container that holds water or food for animals' --
S07.510 the roof māṭi -- --
S07.520 the thatch kūrai 'natural roofing material such as straw, reeds, leaves, etc.' --
S07.530 the ridgepole 'the highest horizontal beam in a roof' --
S07.540 the rafter 'a horizontal beam that supports the roof' --
S07.550 the beam vaḷai -- --
S07.560 the post or pole kampam = 'a strong upright piece of wood, metal etc. that is fixed into the ground, especially to support something' a fence post
S07.570 the board palakai -- --
S07.580 the arch vaḷaivu -- --
S07.610 the mason mēstiri -- --
S07.620 the brick ceṅkal -- --
S07.630 the mortar(2) cuṇṇāmpuk kalavai 'a mixture of lime, sand and water, used in building for joining bricks or stones together' --
S07.640 the adobe cuṭappaṭāta ceṅkal 'earth and straw that are made into bricks for building houses' --

Chapter 8 - Agriculture and vegetation
S08.110 the farmer uḻavar -- The poor farmer did not own the land he cultivated.
S08.120 the field vayal (for cultivation) The field was planted with cabbage.
S08.130 the garden tōṭṭam -- Behind the house was a garden where the family grew vegetables.
S08.150 to cultivate payircey -- There is no more land left to cultivate.
S08.160 the fence vēli -- --
S08.170 the ditch cākkaṭai 'a long narrow hole cut into the ground at the side of a field, road etc., especially for water to flow through' --
S08.210 to plough/plow uḻutal -- --
S08.212 the furrow uḻavukāl -- --
S08.220 to dig tōṇṭutal -- --
S08.230 the spade maṇveṭṭi 'tool with handle and blade used for digging in the ground' --
S08.240 the shovel kaṭappāṟai 'tool with handle and scoop for lifting and throwing material such as soil' --
S08.250 the hoe 'tool with handle and blade with two or more prongs used for weeding, raking, etc.' --
S08.260 the fork(2)/pitchfork kuppai vāri -- --
S08.270 the rake vaṟaṇṭi -- --
S08.310 to sow vitaittal -- --
S08.311 the seed vittu -- --
S08.320 to mow katir -- --
S08.330 the sickle or scythe arivāḷ -- --
S08.340 to thresh katiraṭittal -- --
S08.350 the threshing-floor katiraṭikkum kaḷam -- --
S08.410 the harvest aṟuvaṭai -- --
S08.420 the grain tāṉiyam (barley, oats, etc.) --
S08.430 the wheat kōtumai -- --
S08.440 the barley vālkōtumai -- --
S08.450 the rye kampu -- --
S08.460 the oats kāṭaikkaṇṇi -- --
S08.470 the maize/corn makkāccōḷam -- The bought corn-on-the-cob from the vendor in the park.
S08.470 the rice arici 'cooked rice as a meal' They ate their rice with the stew.
S08.510 the grass pul -- Green grass was growing in the forest clearing.
S08.520 the hay vaikkōl -- --
S08.530 the plant ceṭi -- --
S08.531 to plant naṭutal -- --
S08.540 the root vēr -- --
S08.550 the branch marak kiḷai -- --
S08.560 the leaf ilai -- --
S08.570 the flower -- --
S08.600 the tree maram -- --
S08.610 the oak cintūra maram -- --
S08.620 the beech puṅkamaram -- --
S08.630 the birch pūrccamaram -- --
S08.640 the pine tēvatāru maram -- --
S08.650 the fir -- --
S08.660 the acorn -- --
S08.670 the vine koṭi -- --
S08.680 the tobacco pukaiyilai -- --
S08.690 to smoke pukai 'to smoke a cigarette' --
S08.691 the pipe kuḻāy (for smoking) --
S08.720 the tree stump -- --
S08.730 the tree trunk aṭimaram -- --
S08.740 the forked branch -- --
S08.750 the bark marappaṭṭai -- --
S08.760 the sap ceṭippāl -- The farmers collected the sap from the maple trees to make syrup.
S08.810 the palm tree paṉai maram -- Dates grow on palm trees.
S08.820 the coconut tēṅkāy (fruit, not tree) The boy picked a green coconut and drank its juice.
S08.830 the citrus fruit -- --
S08.840 the banana vāḻai -- The monkey peeled the banana and ate it.
S08.850 the banyan āla maram -- --
S08.910 the sweet potato carkkarai vaḷḷikkiḻaṅku -- --
S08.912 the yam cēṉaikkiḻaṅku -- --
S08.920 the cassava/manioc keppakkiḻaṅku (the tuber, rather than its plant or products) The farmer grew cassava/manioc to feed his family.
S08.930 the gourd curaikkāy -- --
S08.931 the pumpkin or squash paraṅkikkāy -- --
S08.940 the bamboo mūṅkil -- --
S08.941 the sugar cane karumpu -- --
S08.960 the fish poison (in Amazonia, a kind of root is apparently used as fish poison) --
S08.970 the nettle valai -- --
S08.980 the mushroom kāḷāṉ -- --

Chapter 9 - Basic actions and technology
S09.110 to do ceytal (pure action meaning) A has climbed on a tree. B says to A: What are you doing up there?""
S09.120 the work vēlai -- I can't go out because I have too much work.
S09.140 to bend vaḷaittal -- I'll bend the branches away so that you can get through.
S09.150 to fold maṭittal -- She folded the piece of paper and put it in the envelope.
S09.160 to tie kaṭṭutal -- He tied his dog to a tree.
S09.161 to untie aviḻttal -- He untied his dog from the tree.
S09.180 the chain caṅkili -- --
S09.190 the rope kayiṟu -- They tied up the prisoner with rope.
S09.192 the knot mūṭiccu -- Can you help me undo this knot?
S09.210 to strike or hit or beat aṭittal -- --
S09.211 to pound 'with fist' He pounded the door with his fist.
S09.220 to cut veṭṭutal -- The thieves cut the phone wires and entered the house.
S09.221 to cut down veṭṭittaḷḷutal -- Before building the road, we first have to cut down many trees.
S09.222 to chop -- chopping wood for the fire
S09.223 to stab kuttutal -- Brutus stabbed Caesar to death.
S09.230 the knife(2) katti 'knife for preparing food' To chop the onions I need a knife.
S09.240 the scissors or shears kattarikkōl -- --
S09.250 the axe/ax kōṭāri -- --
S09.251 the adze 'a sharp tool with the blade at a right angle to the handle, used to shape pieces of wood' --
S09.260 to break uṭaittal -- The thieves got into the house by breaking a window.
S09.261 broken uṭainta 'out of order, not working' The radio is broken, it won't turn on.
S09.270 to split piḷattal -- This log is too large, we have to split it into two.
S09.280 to tear kiḻittal 'damage [paper/cloth] by pulling it too hard' She tore a piece of her blouse to use as a bandange.
S09.290 to skin tōlurittal 'strip or pull off the skin or hide of' The cook skinned the chicken before frying it.
S09.310 to rub urācutal -- He rubbed the fragrant leaves between his fingers.
S09.320 to stretch virittal 'make [something elastic] bigger or looser by pulling it' Don't stretch the rubber band too much.
S09.330 to pull iḻuttal 'use one's hand to make something move towards one or in the direction that one is moving' Help me move the piano: you push and I'll pull.
S09.340 to spread out parapputal -- They spread out the mat on the ground and sat on it.
S09.341 to hang up toṅkaviṭutal -- Hang your coat up on the hook.
S09.342 to press aḻuttutal 'push something firmly against a surface' The little boys pressed their noses against the glass.
S09.343 to squeeze piḻital 'press something tightly' She squeezed some oranges and drank the juice.
S09.350 to pour ūṟṟutal -- He poured the wine into the glass.
S09.360 to wash kaḻuvutal (transitive) She washed her son's feet.
S09.370 to sweep perukkutal 'clean the dust/dirt from the floor/ground using a broom' He swept the path in front of the house.
S09.380 the broom tuṭaippam 'a large brush with a long handle, used for sweeping floors' --
S09.422 the tool karuvi 'an artifact (such as a hammer, a saw or a screwdriver) held in one's hand to help one in performing a particular job' --
S09.430 the carpenter taccar 'someone whose job is making and repairing wooden objects' --
S09.440 to build kaṭṭutal -- build a house
S09.460 to bore tuḷaittal 'make a deep round hole in a hard surface' --
S09.461 to hollow out kuḻivu 'make a hole or empty space by removing the inside part of something' --
S09.480 the saw rampam -- One needs a saw to cut down a tree.
S09.490 the hammer cutti -- --
S09.500 the nail nakam 'a thin pointed piece of metal which one forces into a piece of wood with a hammer to fasten the wood to something else' --
S09.560 the glue pacai 'a sticky substance used for joining things together' --
S09.600 the blacksmith kollaṉ -- --
S09.610 to forge 'make something from a piece of metal by heating the metal and shaping it' From a piece of scrap iron, the blacksmith forged a sword blade.
S09.620 the anvil paṭṭaraikkkal 'a heavy iron block on which pieces of metal are shaped using a hammer' --
S09.630 to cast vārttal 'form metal objects by pouring the molten metal into molds' The goldsmith melted the coins and cast them into a goblet.
S09.640 the gold taṅkam -- The bracelet is made of gold.
S09.650 the silver veḷḷi -- The necklace is made of silver.
S09.660 the copper cempu -- The coin is made of copper.
S09.670 the iron irumpu -- --
S09.680 the lead īyam (a kind of metal) --
S09.690 the tin or tinplate takaram -- The cup was made of tin.
S09.710 the potter kuyavar -- The potter made jars.
S09.720 to mould/mold accu 'form articles from clay or other plastic material by molding with the hands' She molded the clay into a dish before firing it.
S09.730 the clay kaḷimaṇ -- --
S09.740 the glass kaṇṇāṭi (the substance, not the drinking vessel) The window is made of glass.
S09.750 to weave or plait/braid neytal 'weave (a basket) or plait/braid (someone's hair)' --
S09.760 the basket kūṭai -- She carried the fruit home in a basket.
S09.770 the mat pāy 'a small piece of thick rough material which covers part of the floor' --
S09.771 the rug jamūkkāḷam 'a piece of thick cloth or wool that is smaller than a carpet and is put on the floor as decoration' --
S09.780 the netbag 'bag made of net used in Papua to carry things' --
S09.790 the fan viciṟi -- The lady had a delicate fan made of sandalwood.
S09.791 to fan ārvalar -- People in the audience were fanning themselves with their programmes.
S09.810 to carve cetukkutal 'cut shapes out of wood or stone' Michaelangelo carved this figure from a single block of marble.
S09.820 the sculptor ciṟpi -- Rodin was a French sculptor.
S09.830 the statue cilai -- The sculptor made a statue of a woman.
S09.840 the chisel uḷi 'a metal tool with a sharp edge, used to cut wood or stone' --
S09.880 the paint varṇam 'a liquid that one puts on a surface to make it a particular colour' --
S09.890 to paint cāyampūcutal 'put paint on a surface' We need to paint our house.

Chapter 10 - Motion
S10.110 to move nakarttal (transitive) This rock is so heavy that it cannot be moved.
S10.120 to turn tirupputal (transitive) to turn one's head
S10.130 to turn around tirumputal (intransitive) He heard someone call out his name and turned around.
S10.140 to wrap cuṟṟutal -- He wrapped the fish in leaves and steamed it.
S10.150 to roll curuṭṭutal (transitive) He rolled the log down the hill.
S10.160 to drop pōṭutal (transitive) We dropped the stone into the water.
S10.170 to twist mūṟukkutal (transitive) She twisted the wire around the branch.
S10.210 to rise eḻutal -- The sun rises in the east.
S10.220 to raise or lift uyarttuttal -- --
S10.230 to fall viḻutal -- The ripe coconut fell on the ground.
S10.240 to drip coṭṭutal -- The tap is dripping, shut it tightly!
S10.250 to throw eṟital -- Don't throw stones, it's dangerous!
S10.252 to catch piṭittal -- She caught the ball and passed it to her team mate.
S10.260 to shake kulukkutal (transitive) Shake the bottle before pouring out the sauce.
S10.320 to flow pāytal -- The river flows to the sea.
S10.330 to sink mūḻkutal (intransitive) The coconut fell into the water and sank.
S10.340 to float mitakkutal (intransitive) The raft floated on the river.
S10.350 to swim nīntutal -- He drowned because he could not swim.
S10.351 to dive mūḻukutal -- Diving too deeply is dangerous.
S10.352 to splash teḷittal -- The girl splashed water in the boy's face.
S10.360 to sail -- The ship sailed from America to Australia.
S10.370 to fly paṟattal (intransitive) Look at that bird flying up in the sky!
S10.380 to blow aṭittal (intransitive) The wind is blowing hard.
S10.410 to crawl tavaḻtal -- The baby is still crawling, it can't walk yet.
S10.412 to kneel maṇṭiyiṭutal 'to get down on one's knees' The messenger kneeled before the king.
S10.413 to crouch kuṉital 'lower one's body close to the ground by bending one's knees completely' She crouched under the sink to fix the pipes.
S10.420 to slide or slip caṟukkutal (intransitive) --
S10.430 to jump tāvutal -- The children were so happy they jumped up and down.
S10.431 to kick utaittal -- He kicked the ball.
S10.440 to dance naṭaṉamaṭutal -- Though the music stopped they kept on dancing.
S10.450 to walk naṭa (intransitive) The children walk to school every day.
S10.451 to limp noṇṭutal -- After his foot injury he limped for months.
S10.460 to run ōṭutal (intransitive) They ran all the way to school.
S10.470 to go cel -- Sometimes I go to school by car, sometimes on foot.
S10.471 to go up mēlēcellutal -- I went up on the roof to get a better view.
S10.472 to climb ēṟutal -- If you want to pick mangos, you must climb the tree.
S10.473 to go down kīḻēcellutal -- Come down from the roof or you'll fall down.
S10.474 to go out veḷiyēcellutal -- Get out of here before you get hurt!
S10.480 to come vārutal -- When I came to school it was still closed.
S10.481 to come back tirumpivārutal -- He left and then came back an hour later.
S10.490 to leave veḷiyēṟutal (intransitive) 'depart, go away' The guest arrived yesterday and left this morning.
S10.491 to disappear maṟaintuviṭutal -- The man disappeared without a trace.
S10.510 to flee tappiōṭutal -- Because of the fire they had to flee their home.
S10.520 to follow piṉpaṟṟutal -- I came here first, my family followed me later.
S10.530 to pursue tēṭu -- The policeman pursued the thief.
S10.550 to arrive vantaṭaital -- The guest arrived yesterday and left this morning.
S10.560 to approach aṇukutal -- As we approached the city we could see the lights in the distance.
S10.570 to enter nuḻaital -- She entered the room and sat down.
S10.610 to carry eṭuttuccellutal -- She carried her baby home.
S10.612 to carry in hand kaiyil eṭuttucel -- She carried a stone in her hand.
S10.613 to carry on shoulder tōḷil eṭuttucel -- He carried the books on his shoulder.
S10.614 to carry on head talaiyil eṭuttucel -- She carried the fruit basket on her head.
S10.615 to carry under the arm -- She carried her bag under her arm.
S10.620 to bring koṇṭuvārutal -- Please bring me the book you are holding.
S10.630 to send aṉupputal -- She sent her parents some money.
S10.640 to lead vaḻikāṭṭutal -- The dog led the hunter to the fox.
S10.650 to drive ōṭṭutal (transitive) He can drive a car, but not a truck.
S10.660 to ride cavāri -- She rides her horse to work every day.
S10.670 to push taḷḷutal -- Don't push me or I'll fall down.
S10.710 the road cālai -- Many cars drove up and down the road.
S10.720 the path pātai -- The path leads from the house to the field.
S10.740 the bridge pālam -- A beautiful bridge stood over the river.
S10.750 the cart or wagon kaṭṭai vaṇṭi -- The cart was pulled by a horse.
S10.760 the wheel cakkaram -- The car has four wheels.
S10.770 the axle accāṇi -- --
S10.780 the yoke nukattaṭi -- --
S10.810 the ship kappal -- --
S10.830 the boat paṭaku -- --
S10.831 the canoe ciṟupaṭaku -- --
S10.832 the outrigger tūmpukaṭṭai -- --
S10.840 the raft kaṭṭumaram -- --
S10.850 the oar tuṭuppu -- --
S10.851 the paddle paṭakuttuṭuppu -- --
S10.852 to row paṭakaicceluttutal -- --
S10.860 the rudder cukkāṉ -- --
S10.870 the mast kappal pāymaram -- --
S10.880 the sail -- --
S10.890 the anchor naṅkūram -- --
S10.910 the port tuṟaimūkam (= harbour) --
S10.920 to land nilam -- --

Chapter 11 - Possession
S11.110 to have vaittiru 'have temporarily (including things that one does not strictly speaking possess)' The boy has a flower in his hand.
S11.120 to own contamāṉa 'possess, have permanently as legal possession' The woman owns a car.
S11.130 to take eṭuttal 'seize a concrete object in the hand and hold it' I took my bag and walked to the market square.
S11.140 to grasp paṟṟal 'take and hold something firmly with one's hands' Make sure you grasp the rope with both hands.
S11.150 to hold piṭittiruttal 'to have something in one's hand or arms' I held the baby in my arms.
S11.160 to get peṟṟal 'come into possession of something' (neutral between 'obtain' and 'receive') --
S11.170 to keep vaittiruttal 'retain, remain in possession of something' I like the hat you gave me and I'd like to keep it.
S11.180 the thing poruḷ 'concrete object of any kind' My brother is rich, and many things in his house are never used.
S11.210 to give koṭuttal 'physical transfer of an object with one's hands that passes into possession of the recipient' The girl gave the boy a flower.
S11.220 to give back tiruppikkoṭuttal 'give something that was earlier in the recipient's possession' I lent you my watch, and you haven't given it back yet.
S11.240 to preserve pātukāttal 'save something/someone from being harmed or destroyed' I think these traditional customs should be preserved. / The wreck was preserved by the muddy sea bed.
S11.250 to rescue mīṭṭal 'make someone safe from danger or harm' He saved his friend from drowning.
S11.270 to destroy aḻittal 'damage something so badly that it cannot be repaired or so that it no longer exists' The school was completely destroyed by fire.
S11.280 to injure kāyappaṭutal 'to cause bodily harm' The falling tree injured two loggers.
S11.310 to look for etirpārttal -- I am looking for my purse; I must have lost it on my way.
S11.320 to find kaṇṭupiṭittal -- I had lost my purse but I found it again.
S11.330 to lose paṟikoṭuttal -- I had lost my purse but I found it again.
S11.340 to let go pōkaviṭutal 'stop holding something/someone' She let go of the rope.
S11.430 the money paṇam -- A thousand dollars is a lot of money.
S11.440 the coin nāṇayam -- I don't have any coins left, only paper money.
S11.510 rich paṇakkārar -- The beggar invested his money so well that he became rich.
S11.520 poor ēḻmaiyāṉa -- After he became rich, he donated a lot of money to poor people.
S11.530 the beggar piccaikkārar -- The beggar collected money in a cup.
S11.540 stingy kañcattaṉam -- He is so stingy he doesn't heat his house even in winter.
S11.610 to lend iravalkoṭuttal -- Can you lend me your ladder?
S11.620 to borrow kaṭaṉvāṅkutal -- Can I borrow your ladder?
S11.630 to owe kaṭamaippaṭṭiru -- My brother owes me 100 Euros.
S11.640 the debt kaṭaṉ 'sum of money that one owes' He now had enough money to pay off his father's outstanding debts.
S11.650 to pay koṭu -- I paid 100 Euros for this book.
S11.660 the bill vilaippaṭṭiyal 'written list showing how much a customer has to pay' --
S11.690 the tax vari -- If you don't pay your taxes, you go to jail.
S11.770 to hire paṇiyamarttutal 'employ' We need to hire/employ more workers if we want to finish the task in time.
S11.780 the wages kūli 'the money a worker receives for the work done' The job's not very exciting, but he earns a good wage.
S11.790 to earn campātittal 'receive [money] for regular work' The job's not very exciting, but he earns a good wage.
S11.810 to buy vāṅkutal -- I bought ten bananas for a dollar.
S11.820 to sell viṟṟal -- He sold his car for five thousand Euros.
S11.830 to trade or barter vaṇikam -- The farmer traded his cow for three goats.
S11.840 the merchant vaṇikar 'someone who buys and sells goods in large quantities' --
S11.850 the market cantai (place) He is going to the market to buy vegetables.
S11.860 the shop/store kaṭai -- There are no shops in the market, only open stalls.
S11.870 the price vilai -- The price of these bananas is two dollars a bunch.
S11.880 expensive vilaiyuyarnta -- Mangos are more expensive than bananas.
S11.890 cheap malivāṉa -- Bananas are so cheap even poor people can afford them.
S11.910 to share pakirntukoḷḷutal 'let someone have part of something that belongs to oneself' The girl shared the cookies with her brother.
S11.920 to weigh eṭaipōṭutal 'have a certain weight' The bag weighs 10 kilograms.

Chapter 12 - Spatial relations
S12.110 the place iṭam -- This place is too hot, let's look for a cooler place.
S12.120 to put vaittal -- He put the book on the table.
S12.130 to sit uṭkārutal -- Let's sit under the tree.
S12.140 to lie down paṭuttal -- She lay down in her bed but could not fall asleep.
S12.150 to stand niṟṟal -- He got tired of standing and sat down.
S12.160 to remain taṅkiyiru -- I plan to remain here for a week.
S12.170 the remains eñciyavai -- After the earthquake, some people continued to live in the remains of their homes.
S12.210 to gather cēkarittal (transitive) He gathered wild mushrooms for dinner.
S12.212 to pick up eṭuttal -- She picked up the stone and then threw it down again.
S12.213 to pile up kuvittal (transitive) He piled up the mushrooms he had collected.
S12.220 to join cērttal (transitive) He joined the two boards with nails.
S12.230 to separate pirittal (transitive) He separated the two boards by pulling out the nails.
S12.232 to divide vakuttal (transitive) She divided the bananas equally among the children.
S12.240 to open tiṟanta (transitive) He opened the door and went out.
S12.250 to shut mūṭutal (transitive) After coming in, he shut the door.
S12.260 to cover maṟaittal -- He covered the child with a blanket.
S12.270 to hide oḷittal 'conceal' (transitive) Hide your money here, so no one can find it.
S12.310 high uyaramāṉa -- The eagle flew so high it was hardly visible.
S12.320 low kīḻ -- The bat flew so low its wings brushed against the bush.
S12.330 the top ucci -- The top of the tree caught fire.
S12.340 the bottom aṭippuṟam -- The coin was lying on the bottom of the pond.
S12.350 the end(1) mūṭivu (spatial) At the end of the village stood a small house.
S12.352 pointed kūrmaiyāṉa -- He pierced the leather with a pointed knife.
S12.353 the edge viḷimpu -- --
S12.360 the side pakkam -- There were trees on both sides of the house.
S12.370 the middle naṭuvil center --
S12.410 right(1) valatu -- on the right side
S12.420 left iṭatu -- on the left side
S12.430 near arukē (adverb) She was standing near enough to hear what they said.
S12.440 far tolaivu (adverb) --
S12.450 the east kiḻakku -- --
S12.460 the west mēṟku -- --
S12.470 the north vaṭakku -- --
S12.480 the south teṟku -- --
S12.530 to grow vaḷar -- --
S12.540 to measure aḷa (transitive) --
S12.541 the fathom āḻa aḷavu 'a unit of length (originally outstretched arms), equal to about 1.8 metres' --
S12.550 big periya -- --
S12.560 small ciṉṉa -- --
S12.570 long nīṇṭa -- --
S12.580 tall uyaramāṉa -- --
S12.590 short kuṭṭaiyāṉa -- --
S12.610 wide akalamāṉa -- --
S12.620 narrow kuṟukiya -- --
S12.630 thick taṭippāṉa (in dimension; as opposed to thick in density, e.g. thick soup, hair) a thick board
S12.650 thin melliya (in dimension; as opposed to thin in density, e.g. thin soup, hair) a thin board
S12.670 deep āḻam -- --
S12.680 shallow āḻamaṟṟa -- --
S12.710 flat camamāṉa -- --
S12.730 straight nēr -- --
S12.740 crooked vaḷainta (opposite of straight) --
S12.750 the hook kokki -- --
S12.760 the corner mūlai -- --
S12.770 the cross kuṟukku -- --
S12.780 the square caturam -- --
S12.810 round vaṭṭam -- --
S12.820 the circle vaṭṭāram -- --
S12.830 the ball pantu 'sphere' --
S12.840 the line vari -- --
S12.850 the hole ōṭṭai -- --
S12.920 similar orēmātiri -- --
S12.930 to change māṟṟam -- The baby changed her life.

Chapter 13 - Quantity
S13.100 ten pattu -- ten trees
S13.101 eleven patiṉoṉṟu -- eleven trees
S13.102 twelve paṉṉiraṇṭu -- twelve trees
S13.103 fifteen patiṉaintu -- fifteen trees
S13.104 twenty irupatu -- twenty trees
S13.105 a hundred nūṟu -- a hundred trees
S13.106 a thousand āyiram -- a thousand trees
S13.107 to count eṇṇu 'count objects in a set in order to determine the total' The teacher was counting the children as they got on the bus.
S13.140 all ellā 'the complete set of' (applied to a conceptually countable and nonsingular noun) All the children got on the bus.
S13.150 many pala 'a large number of' (applied to a conceptually countable and nonsingular noun) There are many children on the bus.
S13.160 more atikam 'a larger number of' Today I found more mushrooms than yesterday.
S13.170 few kuṟainta 'a small number of' There are few mushrooms in this forest.
S13.180 enough pōtumāṉa -- Today I found enough mushrooms for our supper.
S13.181 some koñcam 'a certain number of' (applied to a conceptually countable and nonsingular noun) Today we found some mushrooms.
S13.190 the crowd kūṭṭam 'a large number of people in one place' There was a large crowd of people waiting outside the theatre.
S13.210 full niṟainta -- An empty pot is easier to carry than a full pot.
S13.220 empty kāli -- An empty pot is easier to carry than a full pot.
S13.230 the part pakuti -- The front part of the car was badly damaged.
S13.240 the half pāti 'either of the two equal parts into which something is divided' She cut the banana in two halves and gave one half to her husband.
S13.330 only maṭṭum -- Saturn is the only planet with rings.
S13.340 first mutal -- You are the first person I see today.
S13.350 last kaṭaici -- You were last person I saw before going to bed.
S13.360 second iraṇṭāvatu -- You are the second person I see today.
S13.370 the pair jōṭi 'two things of the same kind that are used together' a pair of shoes
S13.380 twice/two times iru mūṟai -- He came over twice today.
S13.420 third mūṉṟāvatu -- You are the third person I see today.
S13.440 three times mūṉṟu mūṟai -- He came over three times today.

Chapter 14 - Time
S14.110 the time kālam -- Only time can heal her pain.
S14.120 the age paruvam 'time of life' At this age the baby can only drink milk.
S14.130 new putiya -- I bought a new car.
S14.140 young iḷamaiyāṉa -- He is too young to eat solid foods.
S14.150 old vayatāṉa -- She is so old that all her teeth are gone.
S14.160 early muṉpāka -- Come early, otherwise you won't get any cake.
S14.170 late tāmatam -- Don't come late, otherwise you won't get any cake.
S14.180 now ippōtu -- I was sick last week, but I'm fine now.
S14.190 immediately uṭaṉē -- Come here immediately!
S14.210 fast vēkam 'quickly' (adverb) That man runs as fast as a horse.
S14.220 slow metuvāka (adverb) That horse runs as slow as a human.
S14.230 to hurry avacaram (intransitive) Please hurry, or we'll be late.
S14.240 to be late tāmatamākutal to tarry We expected her by 10 o'clock, but she was late.
S14.250 to begin ārampi (transitive) I began the work yesterday.
S14.252 to last toṭartal 'take up' The dry season lasts three months.
S14.260 the end(2) mūṭivu (temporal) At the end of the harvest there is a celebration.
S14.270 to finish niṟaivēṟṟutal -- I began building my house five years ago, but only finished it this year.
S14.280 to cease niṟuttutal 'to stop doing something' The two sides promised to cease all hostile acts against each other.
S14.290 ready tayār -- I'm ready to go, but my husband is still in the shower.
S14.310 always eppōtum -- He always comes late.
S14.320 often aṭikkaṭi -- He often comes late, but today he's on time.
S14.330 sometimes cila nēraṅkaḷil -- Sometimes he comes late, but more often he's on time.
S14.331 soon cīkkiram -- Don't go yet, he'll be here soon.
S14.332 for a long time veku kālam -- He waited for a long time, but she never came.
S14.340 never orupoḻutum -- I never eat pork.
S14.350 again mīṇṭum -- I was there yesterday, but today I'm going again.
S14.410 the day(1) pakal (as opposed to 'night') The days are very hot here, but the nights are cool.
S14.420 the night iravu -- The days very hot here, but the nights are cool.
S14.430 the dawn viṭiyaṟkālai -- The sun comes up at dawn.
S14.440 the morning kālai -- The children go to school in the morning.
S14.450 the midday naṭuppakal -- We prefer having dinner at midday rather than in the evening.
S14.451 the afternoon matiyam -- In the aftertoon I like to take a nap.
S14.460 the evening mālai -- We prefer having dinner at midday rather than in the evening.
S14.470 today iṉṟu -- He's not in today, please call again tomorrow morning.
S14.480 tomorrow nāḷai -- He's not in today, please call again tomorrow morning.
S14.481 the day after tomorrow nāḷaikku māṟunāḷ (adverbial use) She's leaving tomorrow and coming back the day after tomorrow.
S14.490 yesterday nēṟṟu -- She left the day before yesterday and arrived yesterday.
S14.491 the day before yesterday mūntānāḷ (adverbial use) She left the day before yesterday and arrived yesterday.
S14.510 the hour maṇi -- The day here lasts 15 hours in midsummer.
S14.530 the clock kaṭikāram -- That clock on the wall was bought by my grandfather.
S14.610 the week vāram -- I'm planning to stay for a week or two.
S14.620 Sunday ñāyiṟṟukkiḻamai -- On Sunday we go to church.
S14.630 Monday tiṅkaṭkiḻamai -- On Monday we go to work.
S14.640 Tuesday cevvāykkiḻamai -- On Tuesday we're having a party.
S14.650 Wednesday putaṉkiḻamai -- On Wednesday there is a holiday.
S14.660 Thursday viyāḻakkiḻamai -- On Thursday my mother is arriving.
S14.670 Friday veḷḷikkiḻamai -- On Friday we go to the mosque.
S14.680 Saturday caṉikkiḻamai -- On Saturday we go to the synagogue.
S14.710 the month mātam -- There are twelve months in a year.
S14.730 the year āṇṭu -- A year normally lasts 365 days.
S14.740 the winter kuḷirkālam -- The winters are very cold here.
S14.750 the spring(2) iḷavēṉiṟ -- The tree blooms in the spring.
S14.760 the summer kōṭai kālam -- The summers are very hot here.
S14.770 the autumn/fall ilaiyutirkālam -- In the autumn it gets cooler.
S14.780 the season paruvakālam -- There are only two seasons here, the dry season and the wet season.

Chapter 15 - Sense perception
S15.210 to smell(1) vācam '(intransitive) to have a particular smell' The flower smells pleasant.
S15.212 to sniff mūkartal 'to inhale through one's nose in order to smell something' He opened the milk and sniffed it.
S15.220 to smell(2) nukartal '(transitive) to notice a particular smell' I think I smell gas!
S15.250 fragrant naṟumaṇam 'good smelling' --
S15.260 stinking turnāṟṟam 'bad smelling' --
S15.310 to taste cuvaittal 'have a particular taste' This soup tastes very good.
S15.350 sweet iṉippāṉa -- The ripe fruit is sweet.
S15.360 salty -- The soup is too salty, add some water.
S15.370 bitter kacappu -- The medicine is bitter, take it with honey.
S15.380 sour -- Sprinkle a little sugar over the strawberries if they are sour.
S15.390 brackish upputtaṇṇir brackish water: 'water that is not pure but is slightly salty' brackish water
S15.410 to hear kēḷpatu -- I heard the sound of rain splashing on the window.
S15.420 to listen cevimaṭu 'pay attention to a sound that one can hear' Listen to the strange noise in the engine.
S15.440 the sound or noise cattam 'something that one can hear' There were strange sounds coming from the next room.
S15.450 loud urakka -- The music is very loud.
S15.460 quiet amaiti 'not making much noise' We have to be quiet so as not to wake the baby.
S15.510 to see pārttal -- I see a house in the distance.
S15.520 to look kāṇutal -- I'm looking but I can't see the house.
S15.550 to show kāṇpittal -- She showed me her house.
S15.560 to shine paḷapaḷattal -- That lamp is shining in my eyes.
S15.570 bright veḷiccamāṉa 'having a lot of light' I awoke from the bright sunlight.
S15.610 the colour/color vaṇṇam -- My shirt is red, but I'd prefer a different colour.
S15.620 light(2) veḷiccam (as opposed to dark) --
S15.630 dark iruḷ -- It is dark in the room because the lamp is broken.
S15.640 white veḷḷai -- (snow)
S15.650 black karuppu -- (charcoal)
S15.660 red civappu -- (blood)
S15.670 blue nīlam -- (sky)
S15.680 green paccai -- (leaves)
S15.690 yellow mañcaḷ -- (yolk of chicken egg)
S15.710 to touch toṭutal 'put one's hand on something/someone so that one can feel them' The child wanted to touch everything.
S15.712 to pinch kiḷḷutal 'press a part of someone's flesh very tightly between one's finger and thumb (so that it hurts)' Mum, the boy pinched me!
S15.720 to feel uṇarutal 'touch something to get a tactile perception of it' Feel (the quality of) this cloth!
S15.740 hard kaṭiṉamāṉa 'difficult to press down, break or cut' Diamond is the hardest substance known to man.
S15.750 soft meṉmaiyāṉa 'not hard, easy to press/break/cut' a soft pillow
S15.760 rough(1) karaṭumūraṭāṉa 'having an uneven surface' Her hands were rough from hard work.
S15.770 smooth vaḻavaḻappāṉa 'completely even/flat, so that the hand moves easiy over it' smooth skin
S15.780 sharp kūrmaiyāṉa -- The knife is very sharp.
S15.790 blunt kūraṟṟa -- This knife is blunt and does not cut well.
S15.810 heavy palamāṉa -- The suitcase is too heavy for me to carry.
S15.820 light(1) ilēcāṉa (in weight) You can carry this bag, it's fairly light.
S15.830 wet īram 'covered in or full of liquid' He fell into the water, so his clothes are now wet.
S15.840 dry kāynta 'without water or liquid inside or on the surface' The clothes were in the sun for a long time and are now dry.
S15.850 hot cūṭāṉa -- It's better to do the work now because later it'll be too hot.
S15.851 warm veppamāṉa -- The sun is shining and there's no wind, so it's warm and you can go out without a coat.
S15.860 cold kuḷir -- It's cold outside, so you need warm clothes.
S15.870 clean tūymaiyāṉa -- I washed my hands, so now they are clean.
S15.880 dirty aḻukku -- My hands are dirty from the work, so I need to wash them before the meal.
S15.890 wrinkled curukkam -- the wrinkled face of a 90-year old man

Chapter 16 - Emotions and values
S16.110 the soul or spirit ātmā -- --
S16.150 surprised or astonished viyappaṭai -- --
S16.180 the good luck vāḻttukkaḷ -- --
S16.190 the bad luck kēṭṭa nēram -- --
S16.230 happy cantōṣam -- --
S16.250 to laugh cirittal -- --
S16.251 to smile puṉṉakaittal -- --
S16.260 to play viḷaiyāṭutal -- --
S16.270 to love kātalittal -- I love you.
S16.290 to kiss mūttamiṭutal -- --
S16.300 to embrace taḻuvutal -- --
S16.310 the pain vali -- --
S16.320 the grief tukkam -- --
S16.330 the anxiety pataṭṭam -- --
S16.340 to regret or be sorry varuttam -- I regret my mistake./I am sorrry about my mistake.
S16.350 the pity irakkam -- --
S16.370 to cry aḻutal 'to weep' --
S16.380 the tear kiḻi -- --
S16.390 to groan mūṉakal -- --
S16.410 to hate veṟuttal -- --
S16.420 the anger kōpam -- --
S16.440 the envy or jealousy poṟāmai -- --
S16.450 the shame veṭkam -- --
S16.480 proud perumaippaṭu -- --
S16.510 to dare etirttu nil -- --
S16.520 brave tairiyamūḷḷa -- --
S16.530 the fear payam -- --
S16.540 the danger āpattu -- --
S16.620 to want vēṇṭutal 'to desire' --
S16.622 to choose tērnteṭuttal -- --
S16.630 to hope namputal -- --
S16.650 faithful nampikkaikkuriya -- --
S16.660 true uṇmaiyāṉa -- --
S16.670 to lie(2) poy 'tell lies' --
S16.680 the deceit vañcittal -- --
S16.690 to forgive maṉṉittal -- --
S16.710 good nallatu -- --
S16.720 bad keṭṭa -- --
S16.730 right(2) cari 'correct' --
S16.740 wrong tavaṟāṉa -- --
S16.760 the fault tavaṟu -- It's your fault we missed the bus!
S16.770 the mistake tappu -- --
S16.780 the blame paḻi cumattu -- --
S16.790 the praise pārāṭṭu -- --
S16.810 beautiful aḻakiya -- --
S16.820 ugly kōramāṉa -- --
S16.830 greedy pērācaiyuḷḷa -- --
S16.840 clever putticāli -- --

Chapter 17 - Cognition
S17.110 the mind uḷḷam 'the seat of intelligence (as opposed to 'heart' or 'soul' as the seat of emotions)' I don't know what's going on in her mind.
S17.130 to think(1) yōcittāl 'reflect' You should think first before speaking.
S17.140 to think(2) niṉaittal 'be of the opinion' I think that this is not right.
S17.150 to believe namputal 'be sure that someone is telling the truth' You shouldn't believe everything you read.
S17.160 to understand uṇartal -- I do not understand why they left us so early.
S17.170 to know aṟintiruttal -- They know that we are coming today.
S17.171 to guess yūkittal -- Guess how much money I have.
S17.172 to imitate -- --
S17.180 to seem kāṇappaṭutal -- The house seems to be empty.
S17.190 the idea karuttu -- --
S17.210 wise aṟivuḷḷa -- --
S17.220 stupid muṭṭāḷtaṉamāṉa -- --
S17.230 mad paittiyam 'insane' --
S17.240 to learn kaṟṟukkoḷḷutal -- Where did you learn to cook so well?
S17.242 to study paṭittal -- I have to study for my test.
S17.250 to teach kaṟṟukkoṭuttal -- --
S17.260 the pupil māṇavaṉ -- There are 10 pupils in the class, aged 6-7.
S17.270 the teacher āciriyar -- --
S17.280 the school paḷḷi -- The children go to school every morning.
S17.310 to remember niṉaittal -- Do you remember the name of your first teacher?
S17.320 to forget maṟattal -- --
S17.340 clear teḷinta 'clear to the mind' (the opposite of 'obscure') a clear explanation
S17.350 obscure puriyāta 'obscure to the mind' an obscure reason
S17.360 secret rakaciyam -- --
S17.370 certain niccayamāka -- It is certain that the theft occurred during the night.
S17.380 to explain viḷakkutal -- --
S17.410 the intention nōkkam -- It was not his intention to wake the baby up.
S17.420 the cause kāraṇam -- What was the cause of the accident?
S17.430 the doubt cantēkam -- --
S17.440 to suspect cantēkappaṭutal -- The police suspected that he was a drug dealer.
S17.441 to betray nampikkaitturōkam -- --
S17.450 the need or necessity vēṇṭum -- --
S17.460 easy eḷitu -- --
S17.470 difficult kaṣṭamāṉa -- --
S17.480 to try mūyaṟcittal 'to attempt (to do something)' --
S17.490 the manner vitam 'the way in which something is done or happens' --
S17.510 and maṟṟum -- --
S17.520 because ēṉeṉṟāl -- --
S17.530 if ākil -- --
S17.540 or allatu -- --
S17.550 yes ām -- --
S17.560 no illai -- --
S17.610 how? eppaṭi -- --
S17.620 how many? ettaṉai? -- --
S17.630 how much? evvaḷavu -- --
S17.640 what? eṉṉa -- What is that thing on the table?
S17.650 when? eppōtu -- --
S17.660 where? eṅkē -- --
S17.670 which? etu -- --
S17.680 who? yār -- --
S17.690 why? ēṉ -- --

Chapter 18 - Speech and language
S18.110 the voice kural -- --
S18.120 to sing pāṭutal -- --
S18.130 to shout kattutal -- Be careful", he shouted, "a lion!""
S18.150 to whisper kicukicuttal -- --
S18.160 to mumble mūṇumūṇuttal 'to say something too quitely and not clearly enough, so that it is difficult or impossible to hear' The little boy mumbled something about wanting to go to the toilet.
S18.170 to whistle cīṭṭiyaṭittal -- --
S18.180 to shriek vīṟiṭum captam 'to make a very high, loud sound' --
S18.190 to howl ūḷaiyiṭutal '(dog/wolf/other mammal:) to make a long, loud sound' --
S18.210 to speak or talk pēcutal -- --
S18.211 to stutter or stammer tikkipēcutal -- --
S18.220 to say colvatu -- She said she'd be late.
S18.221 to tell collutal 'tell (a story)' Our grandmother told us a story.
S18.222 the speech coṟpoḻivu 'oration' In his speech, the chief thanked the guests.
S18.230 to be silent nicaptamāṉa -- --
S18.240 the language moḻi -- --
S18.260 the word col -- --
S18.280 the name peyar -- What's your name?
S18.310 to ask(1) kēṭpatu 'ask a question, inquire' Where is your mother?", he asked."
S18.320 to answer viṭaiyaḷittal -- I asked him where his mother was, but he didn't answer.
S18.330 to admit oppukkoḷḷal -- The suspect admitted he stole the car.
S18.340 to deny maṟuttal -- She denied she was the thief.
S18.350 to ask(2) vēṇṭutal 'ask for something, request' She asked for a glass of water.
S18.360 to promise uṟutimoḻi -- --
S18.370 to refuse maṟuttal -- --
S18.380 to forbid taṭai ceytal -- --
S18.390 to scold tiṭṭutal 'to rebuke' --
S18.410 to call(1) varavaḻaittal 'to summon' The king called his ministers for a meeting.
S18.420 to call(2) aḻaittal 'to give a name' The parents decided to call their son David.
S18.430 to announce terivittal -- --
S18.440 to threaten miraṭṭutal -- --
S18.450 to boast taṟpukaḻkci -- --
S18.510 to write eḻututal -- --
S18.520 to read paṭittal -- --
S18.560 the paper kākitam -- She took a piece of paper and wrote down her name.
S18.570 the pen pōṉā -- You must use a pen, not a pencil.
S18.610 the book puttakam -- --
S18.670 the poet kaviñaṉ -- --
S18.710 the flute pullāṅkuḻal -- He plays the flute and she plays the violin.
S18.720 the drum mattaḷam -- Don't beat the drum so hard, it's too loud.
S18.730 the horn or trumpet tārai -- --
S18.740 the rattle kilukiluppai 'a wooden instrument that makes a loud knocking noise [used by people watching football games]' --

Chapter 19 - Social and political relations
S19.110 the country nāṭu -- He has traveled to Japan, China, India, and many other countries.
S19.120 the native country taynāṭu -- After the civil war ended, the refugees were able to return to their native country.
S19.150 the town paṭṭaṇam 'an urban settlement' Farmers come into town to sell their produce.
S19.160 the village kirāmam 'a rural settlement' The farmers' fields are near their village.
S19.170 the boundary ellai -- The province boundary is also the border between the two countries.
S19.210 the people makkaḷ 'the populace, the inhabitants of a country (as opposed to the ruling class)' The president is unpopular, but the people adore his daughter.
S19.230 the clan kulam 'extended family' The entire clan lives in one large house.
S19.240 the chieftain ātivācitalaivaṉ 'leader/ruler of a tribe/clan' --
S19.250 the walking stick ūṉṟukōl -- --
S19.310 to rule or govern āṭciceytal -- The president ruled the country for 25 years.
S19.320 the king rājā -- King David
S19.330 the queen rāṇi 'female monarch', not 'king's wife' Queen Elizabeth
S19.360 the noble pirapu -- Nobles are exempt from paying taxes.
S19.370 the citizen kuṭimakaṉ -- a citizen of Germany
S19.410 the master ejmāṉ as opposed to 'slave, servant' --
S19.420 the slave aṭimai -- --
S19.430 the servant vēlaiyāḷ -- --
S19.440 the freeman cutantiramaṉitar -- His mother was a slave, but his father was a freeman.
S19.450 to command or order āṇaiyiṭutal 'tell someone to do something, using one's authority or power' The officer commanded them to line up against the wall.
S19.460 to obey kīḻppaṭittal -- Soldiers are expected to obey their superiors.
S19.470 to permit aṉumatittal -- I am afraid I cannot permit my daughter to marry you.
S19.510 the friend naṇpar -- --
S19.520 the enemy etiri -- --
S19.540 the neighbour aṇṭaiyar -- It's hard to sleep because the neighbors are noisy.
S19.550 the stranger anniyar 'someone whom one does not know' She's not afraid of strangers.
S19.560 the guest viruntāḷi -- --
S19.570 the host viruntōmpi -- The host offered his guests some wine.
S19.580 to help utavutal -- --
S19.590 to prevent taṭuttal -- The police prevented the demonstrators from entering the building.
S19.610 the custom vaḻakkam -- --
S19.620 the quarrel caccaravu -- We have a quarrel with the neighbors over their noise.
S19.630 the plot cūḻcci 'conspiracy' There was a plot to kill the queen.
S19.650 to meet cantittal -- We agreed to meet in front of the theatre.
S19.720 the prostitute vipaccāri -- --

Chapter 20 - Warfare and hunting
S20.110 to fight caṇṭai -- The two tribes have been fighting for weeks.
S20.130 the war or battle yuttam -- --
S20.140 the peace amaiti -- --
S20.150 the army rāṇuvam 'military forces' The Roman army conquered Jerusalem.
S20.170 the soldier paṭaivīrar -- --
S20.210 the weapons āyutaṅkaḷ -- --
S20.220 the club kuṇṭāntaṭi 'large stick used as weapon' --
S20.222 the battle-axe pōrkkōṭāri -- --
S20.230 the sling -- --
S20.240 the bow vil 'used to shoot arrows' --
S20.250 the arrow ampu 'used as a weapon' --
S20.260 the spear īṭṭi -- --
S20.270 the sword vāḷ 'metal weapon with a handle, blade , and sheath' --
S20.280 the gun tuppākki 'rifle' She shot the thief with a gun.
S20.310 the armour kāppuc cātaṉam 'metal or leather clothing worn by soldiers in former times to protect their body' The knight wore a shining armor.
S20.330 the helmet talaikkavacam -- Put on your helmet when you ride a motorcycle.
S20.340 the shield kavacam -- He held up his shield to protect his head from the attack.
S20.350 the fortress kōṭṭai -- --
S20.360 the tower kōpuram -- From the tower you can see the entire town.
S20.410 the victory veṟṟi -- --
S20.420 the defeat tōlvi -- --
S20.430 the attack tākkutal -- --
S20.440 to defend taṟkāttal -- He defended himself but the robber took his wallet.
S20.450 to retreat piṉvāṅkutal -- --
S20.460 to surrender caraṇ -- --
S20.470 the captive or prisoner kaiti -- --
S20.471 the guard meykkāppāḷar -- I wanted to go in but the guard wouldn't let me.
S20.480 the booty -- --
S20.490 the ambush pāyap patuṅkutal -- --
S20.510 the fisherman mīṉavar -- --
S20.520 the fishhook tūṇṭil mūḷ -- --
S20.530 the fishing line taṅkūci -- --
S20.540 the fishnet mīṉvalai -- --
S20.550 the fish trap -- --
S20.560 the bait irai -- Worms are used as bait.
S20.610 to hunt vēṭṭaiyāṭutal -- --
S20.620 to shoot cuṭutal -- She shot the intruder with her gun.
S20.630 to miss tavaṟutal 'miss a target' He shot at the bird but missed it.
S20.640 the trap poṟi -- The hunter lay a trap for the bear.
S20.650 to trap cikkavaittal -- The hunter trapped a fox.

Chapter 21 - Law
S21.110 the law caṭṭam 'a rule that people in a particular country (or administrative area) must obey' There ought to be a law against cutting down trees.
S21.150 the court nītimaṉṟam '(the judge and/or the jury in a) place where all the information concerning a crime is given so that it can be judged' --
S21.160 to adjudicate tīrmāṉittal 'decide whether someone is guilty of a crime in court' --
S21.170 the judgment tīrppu 'official decision given by a judge or a court of law' --
S21.180 the judge nītipati -- --
S21.210 the plaintiff vāti -- --
S21.220 the defendant pirativāti -- --
S21.230 the witness cāṭci -- --
S21.240 to swear cattiyañceytal 'make a public official promise, especially in a court of law' I swear to tell the truth.
S21.250 the oath uṟutimoḻi 'act of swearing' --
S21.310 to accuse kuṟṟañcāṭṭutal -- She accused him of stealing her purse.
S21.320 to condemn kaṇṭittal to find guilty or to sentence The judge condemned the defendant and sentenced him to two years in prison.
S21.330 to convict 'to find guilty' He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
S21.340 to acquit viṭuvikkappaṭutal -- The defendant was acquitted of all charges.
S21.350 guilty kuṟṟamūḷḷa -- The judge found the defendant guilty.
S21.360 innocent appāvi -- He was punished even though he was innocent.
S21.370 the penalty or punishment taṇṭaṉai -- --
S21.380 the fine aparātam -- I had to pay a fine of $100 for speeding.
S21.390 the prison ciṟai -- --
S21.420 the murder kolai 'the crime of deliberately killing someone' Murder is punished very severely.
S21.430 the adultery kūṭā oḻukkam -- --
S21.440 the rape kaṟpaḻittal -- --
S21.460 the arson tīvaippu 'deliberately setting fire to something to cause damage' --
S21.470 the perjury poyccāṭciyam -- --
S21.510 to steal tiruṭutal -- --
S21.520 the thief tiruṭaṉ -- --

Chapter 22 - Religion and belief
S22.110 the religion matam -- --
S22.120 the god iṟaivaṉ -- --
S22.130 the temple kōyil 'general term for house of worship' --
S22.140 the altar pūjai māṭam 'a raised place on which religious rites are performed' --
S22.150 the sacrifice tiyākam 'ritual killing of an animal' --
S22.160 to worship vaḻipaṭutal 'to perform a rite in honor of a deity' --
S22.170 to pray pirāttaṉai 'to ask a deity for something' The farmers prayed for rain.
S22.180 the priest matakuru 'clergy of any religion' --
S22.190 holy paricuttamāṉa -- --
S22.220 to preach upatēci -- --
S22.230 to bless ācirvati -- --
S22.240 to curse cāpamiṭutal -- --
S22.260 to fast viratam 'to refrain from eating' --
S22.310 the heaven cuvarkkam 'the abode of deities' --
S22.320 the hell narakam -- --
S22.350 the demon arakkaṉ 'evil spirit' --
S22.370 the idol vikkirakam 'statue of a deity' --
S22.420 the magic māyājālam -- --
S22.430 the sorcerer or witch cūṉiyakkāri -- --
S22.440 the fairy or elf tēvatai -- --
S22.450 the ghost pēy -- --
S22.470 the omen cakuṉam -- --